Social Science Research Network
QuickSearch SSRN eLibrary

Search Within Results




Feedback to SSRN

SSRN eLibrary Statistics:

Papers & Authors:
Abstracts: 683,968
Full Text Papers: 573,832
Authors: 314,932
Papers Received in
  Last 12 months:
68,129

Paper Downloads:
To date: 101,295,179
Last 12 months: 12,928,162
Last 30 days: 846,435

CiteReader:  What's this?
Papers with
  Resolved
  References:
306,508
Total References: 8,990,993
Papers with Cites: 245,932
Total Citation
  Links:
5,770,148
Papers with
  Resolved
  Footnotes:
91,665
Total Footnotes: 8,995,294


SSRN eLibrary Search Results
FEEM Working Paper Series
345,029 Total downloads | Link to this page

View Web Site

See also: Review of Environment, Energy & Economics (Re3)     

Showing Papers 1 - 50 of 2,023
Sort By
1 2 3 4 ... 41 | Next >
   

Incl. Electronic Paper Promoting Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Africa: A Framework to Evaluate Employment Generation and Cost-Effectiveness
FEEM Working Paper No. 45.2016
Nicola Cantore, Patrick Nussbaumer, Max Wei and Daniel M. Kammen
Overseas Development Institute (ODI), United Nations - United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley - The Richard & Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy
Date Posted: June 27, 2016
Last Revised: July 02, 2016
Working Paper Series
3 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Firm Employment Growth, R&D Expenditures and Exports
FEEM Working Paper No. 44.2016
Marco Di Cintio, Sucharita Ghosh and Emanuele Grassi
University of Salento - Department of Economics and Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Akron and University of Salento - Department of Management, Economics, Mathematics and Statistics
Date Posted: June 27, 2016
Working Paper Series
5 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper How Green are Economists?
FEEM Working Paper No. 43.2016
Stefano Carattini and Alessandro Tavoni
University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland - Geneva School of Business Administration and London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE)
Date Posted: June 27, 2016
Working Paper Series
17 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper The WITCH 2016 Model - Documentation and Implementation of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways
FEEM Working Paper No. 42.2016
Johannes Emmerling, Laurent Drouet, Lara Aleluia Reis, Michela Bevione, Loïc Berger, Valentina Bosetti, Samuel Carrara, Enrica De Cian, Gauthier de Maere d'Aertrycke, Thomas Longden, Maurizio Malpede, Giacomo Marangoni, Fabio Sferra, Massimo Tavoni, Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks and Petr Havlík
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Macquarie University, Faculty of Business and Economics, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Date Posted: June 27, 2016
Last Revised: July 19, 2016
Working Paper Series
9 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Institutions and the Environment: Existing Evidence and Future Directions
FEEM Working Paper No. 41.2016
Shouro Dasgupta and Enrica De Cian
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: June 27, 2016
Last Revised: June 29, 2016
Working Paper Series
13 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper COP 21 and Economic Theory: Taking Stock
FEEM Working Paper No. 40.2016
Henry Tulkens
Catholic University of Louvain - Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE)
Date Posted: May 24, 2016
Working Paper Series
19 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Policies for a More Dematerialized EU Economy: Theoretical Underpinnings, Political Context and Expected Feasibility
FEEM Working Paper No. 39.2016
Andrea Bigano, Alexander Sniegocki and Jacopo Zotti
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) & Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Warszawski Instytut Studiów Ekonomicznych (WISE) and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: May 24, 2016
Working Paper Series
13 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Sharing Skills and Needs between Providers and Users of Climate Information to Create Climate Services: Lessons from the Northern Adriatic Case Study
FEEM Working Paper No. 38.2016
Valentina Giannini, Alessio Bellucci and Silvia Torresan
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) and Independent
Date Posted: May 24, 2016
Working Paper Series
1 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Distributional and Welfare Impacts of Renewable Subsidies in Italy
FEEM Working Paper No. 36.2016
Roberta Distante, Elena Verdolini and Massimo Tavoni
University of Copenhagen - Department of Economics, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), CMCC - Euro Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: May 24, 2016
Working Paper Series
4 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper The Political Economy of Energy Innovation
FEEM Working Paper No. 35.2016
Shouro Dasgupta, Enrica De Cian and Elena Verdolini
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), CMCC - Euro Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change
Date Posted: May 24, 2016
Working Paper Series
9 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Economic Implications of EU Mitigation Policies: Domestic and International Effects
FEEM Working Paper No. 34.2016
Francesco Bosello, Marinella Davide and Isabella Alloisio
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: April 28, 2016
Working Paper Series
12 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Advances and Slowdowns in Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Development
FEEM Working Paper No. 33.2016
Aurora D'Aprile
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: April 28, 2016
Working Paper Series
24 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Keeping Up with the E-Joneses: Do Online Social Networks Raise Social Comparisons?
FEEM Working Paper No. 32.2016
Fabio Sabatini and Francesco Sarracino
Sapienza University of Rome - Department of Economics and Law and STATEC
Date Posted: April 28, 2016
Working Paper Series
6 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Environmental Protection for Sale: Strategic Green Industrial Policy and Climate Finance
FEEM Working Paper No. 31.2016
Carolyn Fischer
Resources for the Future
Date Posted: April 28, 2016
Last Revised: May 14, 2016
Working Paper Series
17 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Strategic Subsidies for Green Goods
FEEM Working Paper No. 30.2016
Carolyn Fischer
Resources for the Future
Date Posted: April 28, 2016
Working Paper Series
6 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper The Water Abstraction License Regime in Italy: A Case for Reform?
FEEM Working Paper No. 29.2016
Silvia Santato, Jaroslav Mysiak and Carlos Dionisio Pérez-Blanco
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Venice
Date Posted: April 28, 2016
Working Paper Series
5 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper A Systemic Approach to the Development of a Policy Mix for Material Resource Efficiency
FEEM Working Paper No. 28.2016
Tomas Ekvall, Martin Hirschnitz-Garbers, Fabio Eboli and Alexander Sniegocki
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Ecologic Institute, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Warszawski Instytut Studiów Ekonomicznych (WISE)
Date Posted: April 28, 2016
Working Paper Series
8 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Extending the EU Commission's Proposal for a Reform of the EU Emissions Trading System
FEEM Working Paper No. 27.2016
Stefan P. Schleicher, Angela Köppl and Alexander C.M. Zeitlberger
University of Graz, Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) and University of Graz - Department of Finance
Date Posted: April 27, 2016
Working Paper Series
8 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Delegation and Public Pressure in a Threshold Public Goods Game: Theory and Experimental Evidence
FEEM Working Paper No. 26.2016
Doruk İriş, Jungmin Lee and Alessandro Tavoni
Sogang University, Seoul National University and London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE)
Date Posted: March 22, 2016
Working Paper Series
8 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Tipping Points and Loss Aversion in International Environmental Agreements
FEEM Working Paper No. 25.2016
Doruk İriş and Alessandro Tavoni
Sogang University and London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE)
Date Posted: March 22, 2016
Working Paper Series
14 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper China's Pursuit of Environmentally Sustainable Development: Harnessing the New Engine of Technological Innovation
FEEM Working Paper No. 24.2016
Wei Jin and ZhongXiang Zhang
Zhejiang University and Tianjin University - College of Management and Economics
Date Posted: March 21, 2016
Last Revised: March 22, 2016
Working Paper Series
10 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Macroeconomic and Financial Effects of Oil Price Shocks: Evidence for the Euro Area
FEEM Working Paper No. 23.2016
Claudio Morana
Università di Milano Bicocca
Date Posted: March 19, 2016
Last Revised: March 23, 2016
Working Paper Series
43 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Too Early to Pick Winners: Disagreement Across Experts Implies the Need to Diversify R&D Investment
FEEM Working Paper No. 22.2016
Laura Diaz Anadon, Erin Baker, Valentina Bosetti and Lara Aleluia Reis
Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA), University of Massachusetts at Amherst - Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: March 19, 2016
Working Paper Series
19 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Building Uncertainty into the Adaptation Cost Estimation in Integrated Assessment Models
FEEM Working Paper No. 021.2016
Anil Markandya, Enrica De Cian, Laurent Drouet, Josué M. Polanco-Martìnez and Francesco Bosello
Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), BC3-Basque Centre for Climate Change and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: March 12, 2016
Working Paper Series
12 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper A Note on Pollution Regulation with Asymmetric Information
FEEM Working Paper No. 020.2016
Alberto Pench
University of Pisa
Date Posted: March 12, 2016
Working Paper Series
3 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Climate Change Policy Under Polar Amplification
FEEM Working Paper No. 019.2016
William A. Brock and Anastasios Xepapadeas
University of Wisconsin, Madison - Department of Economics and Athens University of Economics and Business
Date Posted: March 12, 2016
Working Paper Series
3 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Alternative Approaches for Rating INDCs: A Comparative Analysis
FEEM Working Paper No. 018.2016
Marinella Davide and Paola Vesco
Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) and Centro Euro Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici
Date Posted: March 12, 2016
Working Paper Series
29 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Understanding Dynamic Conditional Correlations between Commodities Futures Markets
FEEM Working Paper No. 017.2016
Niaz Bashiri Behmiri, Matteo Manera and Marcella Nicolini
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), University of Milan-Bicocca, Italy - Department of Economics, Management and Statistics (DEMS) and University of Pavia - Department of Political Economy and Quantitative Methods
Date Posted: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
42 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Global Energy Demand in a Warming Climate
FEEM Working Paper No. 016.2016
Enrica De Cian and Ian Sue Wing
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Boston University
Date Posted: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
29 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Vertical Differentiation and Collusion: Cannibalization or Proliferation?
FEEM Working Paper No. 015.2016
Jean J. Gabszewicz, Marco A. Marini and Ornella Tarola
Catholic University of Louvain (UCL) - Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE), Sapienza Università di Roma and University of Lugano - Institute of Economic Research
Date Posted: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
19 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Accelerated Depreciation, Default Risk and Investment Decisions
FEEM Working Paper No. 014.2016
Paolo M. Panteghini and Sergio Vergalli
University of Brescia and University of Brescia - Department of Economics
Date Posted: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
7 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Modeling Uncertainty in Climate Change: A Multi-Model Comparison
FEEM Working Paper No. 013.2016
Kenneth Gillingham, William D. Nordhaus, David Anthoff, Valentina Bosetti, Haewon McJeon, Geoffrey J. Blanford, Peter Christensen, John M. Reilly and Paul Sztorc
Yale University, Yale University - Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley - Energy and Resources Group, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), University of Maryland - Joint Global Change Research Institute, Electric Power Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change and Yale University - Department of Economics
Date Posted: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
8 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Reforming the IPCC's Assessment of Climate Change Economics
FEEM Working Paper No. 012.2016
Gabriel Chan, Carlo Carraro, Ottmar Edenhofer, Charles D. Kolstad and Robert N. Stavins
University of Minnesota - Humphrey School of Public Affairs, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), University of California, Santa Barbara - Department of Economics and Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS)
Date Posted: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
6 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Exploring the Potential for Energy Efficiency in Turkey
FEEM Working Paper No. 011.2016
Simone Tagliapietra
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
10 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Adapting to Climate Change: An Analysis Under Uncertainty
FEEM Working Paper No. 010.2016
David García-León
Universidad de Alicante
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
5 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Carbon Storage and Bioenergy: Using Forests for Climate Mitigation
FEEM Working Paper No. 009.2016
Alice Favero, Robert O. Mendelsohn and Brent Sohngen
Georgia Institute of Technology, Yale University - School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and Ohio State University (OSU) - Agricultural, Environmental & Development Economics
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
38 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper EU ETS Facets in the Net: How Account Types Influence the Structure of the System
FEEM Working Paper No. 008.2016
Simone Borghesi and Andrea Flori
University of Siena - Dept. Government, Law and Economics and IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
13 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Access to Short-Term Credit and Consumption Smoothing within the Paycycle
FEEM Working Paper No. 007.2016
Mary Zaki
University of Maryland - Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
9 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Anatomy of Risk Premium in UK Natural Gas Futures
FEEM Working Paper No. 006.2016
Beatriz Martínez and Hipòlit Torró
University of Valencia and University of Valencia
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
41 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Sea Level Rise, Radical Uncertainties and Decision-Maker's Liability: The European Coastal Airports Case
FEEM Working Paper No. 005.2016
Leonid V. Sorokin and Gérard Mondello
Peoples' Friendship University of Russia and Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
5 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Employee Representation Legislations and Innovation: Evidence from Manufacturing Sectors
FEEM Working Paper No. 004.2016
Filippo Belloc
University of Chieti-Pescara - Department of Economic Studies
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Last Revised: May 22, 2016
Working Paper Series
30 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Spatial Heat Transport, Polar Amplification and Climate Change Policy
FEEM Working Paper No. 003.2016
William A. Brock and Anastasios Xepapadeas
University of Wisconsin, Madison - Department of Economics and Athens University of Economics and Business
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
4 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Sharing R&D Investments in Breakthrough Technologies to Control Climate Change
FEEM Working Paper No. 002.2016
Santiago J. Rubio
University of Valencia - Department of Economic Analysis
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
12 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper An Empirical Analysis of the Public Spending Decomposition on Organized Crime
FEEM Working Paper No. 001.2016
Maria Berrittella and Carmelo Provenzano
University of Palermo - CIRPIET and Università Kore di Enna
Date Posted: March 07, 2016
Working Paper Series
6 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Regional Low-Emission Pathways from Global Models
FEEM Working Paper No. 110.2015
Heleen Van Soest, Lara Aleluia Reis, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Christoph Bertram, Laurent Drouet, Jessica Jewell, Elmar Kriegler, Gunnar Luderer, Keywan Riahi, Joeri Rogelj, Massimo Tavoni, Michel Den Elzen, Aayushi Awasthy, Katherine Calvin, Pantelis Capros, Leon Clarke, Michel Colombier, Fei Teng, Amit Kumar Garg, Fernanda Guedes, Mariana Imperio, Mikiko Kainuma, Kejun Jiang, Alex Koberle, Peter Kolp, Volker Krey, Alban Kitous, Leonidas Paroussos, Andre Lucena, Toshihiko Masui, Larissa Nogueira, Roberta Pierfederici, Bert Saveyn, Roberto Schaeffer, Sha Fu, Bianka Shoai, Thomas A. Spencer, P.R. Shukla, Alexandre Szklo and Henri Waisman
PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Bilthoven), Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Bilthoven), TERI, Joint Global Change Research Institute, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) - School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Government of the United States of America - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, Tsinghua University, D.C.R University of Science and Technology, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Energy Research Institute of NDRC (ERI), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Joint Research Center of the European Commission, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) - School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), CMCC - Euro Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change, Catholic University of Leuven (KUL), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), National Center for Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation (NCSC), RITE: Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business and Centre International de Recherche sur l’ l'Environnement et le Développement
Date Posted: March 02, 2016
Last Revised: March 08, 2016
Working Paper Series
20 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Including System Integration of Variable Renewable Energies in a Constant Elasticity of Substitution Framework: The Case of the WITCH Model
FEEM Working Paper No. 109.2015
Samuel Carrara and Giacomo Marangoni
Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
Date Posted: January 20, 2016
Working Paper Series
21 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Push, Don't Nudge: Behavioral Spillovers and Policy Instruments
FEEM Working Paper No. 108.2015
Giovanna d'Adda, Valerio Capraro and Massimo Tavoni
Polytechnic University of Milan - Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Middlesex University and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: January 20, 2016
Last Revised: March 17, 2016
Working Paper Series
57 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Lessons Learned from Three Decades of Experience with Cap-and-Trade
FEEM Working Paper No. 107.2015
Richard Schmalensee and Robert N. Stavins
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management and Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS)
Date Posted: January 20, 2016
Working Paper Series
68 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper Second-Best Analysis of European Energy Policy: Is One Bird in the Hand Worth Two in the Bush?
FEEM Working Paper No. 106.2015
Michael Hübler, Oliver Schenker and Carolyn Fischer
Leibniz Universität Hannover, Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) and Resources for the Future
Date Posted: January 20, 2016
Last Revised: February 09, 2016
Working Paper Series
15 downloads

Incl. Electronic Paper The Long Italian Stagnation and the Welfare Effects of Outsourcing
FEEM Working Paper No. 105.2015
Jacopo Zotti
Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)
Date Posted: January 20, 2016
Working Paper Series
14 downloads


 

1 2 3 4 ... 41 | Next >
   


 

© 2016 Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  FAQ   Terms of Use   Privacy Policy   Copyright   Contact Us
This page was processed by apollobot1 in 2.860 seconds