Feedback to SSRN

 
  • Selected
  • Entire List

Guglielmo Maria Caporale

SSRN Author Rank: 10,697 by Downloads and 25,321 by Citations

 

Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance


 Uxbridge UB8 3PH
 United Kingdom
 email address

  SSRN's personal information usage policy
Authors: If anything on this page requires updating or correction, please go to your SSRN User HeadQuarters and make the change.
The RSS feed for this author will notify you of all new papers and revisions as soon as they are added to the SSRN eLibrary.
Popular RSS readers
. Guglielmo Maria Caporale's Scholarly Papers Click on the title of any column to sort the table by that column.
Aggregate Statistics
Total
Downloads
3,261
Total
Citations
10
Authors Date Downloads
 (Rank)
Citations
ACTIONS:    Email Selected Abstracts    Export Selected Bibliographic Info    VIEW: Selected      Original List     All Versions       All Abstracts       Legend
1.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Beirne, John
European Central Bank (ECB)
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
12 Oct 13
0
(74,784)
 

2.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Hunter, John
Brunel University - School of Social Science
Menla Ali, Faek
Brunel University - Economics and Finance Department
Posted:
12 Apr 13
Last Revised:
03 Nov 13
195
(116,835)
 

3.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
National Bank of Ukraine - Ukrainian Academy of Banking of the National Bank of Ukraine
Makarenko, Inna
National Bank of Ukraine - Ukrainian Academy of Banking of the National Bank of Ukraine
Posted:
19 Jun 14
Last Revised:
05 Aug 15
143
(153,688)
 

4.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Babalos, Vassilios
Department of Accounting & Finance, Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Philippas, Nikolaos
University of Piraeus - Department of Business Administration
Posted:
24 May 13
Last Revised:
18 Jun 13
115
(181,948)
 

5.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Fabio
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
24 Sep 15
Last Revised:
10 Nov 15
102
(198,366)
 

6.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Orlando, C. James
University of Navarra - School of Economics
Posted:
20 Mar 15
Last Revised:
19 Oct 15
92
(212,555)
 

7.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi
EDHEC Business School
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Rault, Christophe
Université d'Évry - Centre D'Etudes des Politiques Economiques et de L'Emploi (EPEE)
Sova, Robert
Academy of Economic Studies
Sova, Anamaria
CES Sorbonne University
Posted:
03 Sep 12
Last Revised:
27 May 13
34
(215,584)
 

8.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
National Bank of Ukraine - Ukrainian Academy of Banking of the National Bank of Ukraine
Makarenko, Inna
National Bank of Ukraine - Ukrainian Academy of Banking of the National Bank of Ukraine
Posted:
07 May 14
Last Revised:
05 Aug 15
88
(220,225)
 

9.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Fabio
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
30 Jul 14
Last Revised:
20 Aug 14
83
(226,744)
 

10.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Skare, Marinko
Juraj Dobrila University of Pula
Posted:
11 Jul 11
81
(226,744)
 

11.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
13 Oct 12
Last Revised:
17 Oct 12
79
(233,475)
 

12.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
Sumy State Universtity
Posted:
02 Dec 14
74
(199,715)
 

13.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Fabio
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
02 Oct 14
Last Revised:
22 Oct 14
70
(250,291)
 

14.  
Fiscal Spillovers in the Euro Area | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
CESifo Working Paper Series No. 3693
Number of Pages in PDF File: 33
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Girardi, Alessandro
National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
Posted:
11 Jan 12
70
(248,309)
1

15.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Alessi, Matteo
Federcasse
Di Colli, Stefano
Federcasse Research Department
Lopez, Juan Sergio
Federcasse - Federazione nazionale banche di credito cooperativo
Posted:
12 Mar 15
Last Revised:
09 Apr 15
69
(252,204)
 

16.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Lodh, Suman
Middlesex University
Nandy, Monomita
University of Surrey
Posted:
14 May 15
Last Revised:
02 Jun 15
67
(256,271)
 

17.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
16 Apr 14
66
(244,523)
 

18.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Menla Ali, Faek
Brunel University - Economics and Finance Department
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
14 May 13
Last Revised:
29 Oct 14
66
(258,373)
 

19.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Rault, Christophe
Université d'Évry - Centre D'Etudes des Politiques Economiques et de L'Emploi (EPEE)
Posted:
30 Nov 11
59
(252,204)
 

20.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Menla Ali, Faek
Brunel University - Economics and Finance Department
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
28 Jun 14
Last Revised:
01 Aug 14
58
(275,881)
 

21.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Cunado, Juncal
affiliation not provided to SSRN
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Gupta, Rangan
University of Pretoria - Department of Economics
Posted:
10 Jun 15
Last Revised:
06 Jul 15
57
(278,204)
 

22.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
08 May 13
Last Revised:
14 May 13
54
(285,449)
 

23.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Sova, Anamaria
CES Sorbonne University
Sova, Robert
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
Posted:
25 Feb 15
Last Revised:
10 Mar 15
53
(287,937)
 

24.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
Sumy State Universtity
Posted:
19 Nov 14
53
(238,821)
 

25.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Donadelli, Michael
Research Center SAFE - Goethe University Frankfurt
Varani, Alessia
HEC Montreal
Posted:
13 Feb 14
Last Revised:
20 Mar 14
52
(290,455)
 

26.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
20 Oct 10
51
(287,937)
 

27.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Onorante, Luca
European Central Bank (ECB)
Paesani, Paolo
University of Rome - Tor Vergata - Department of Economics and Institutions
Posted:
24 Jul 10
50
(267,014)
2

28.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Fabio
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
10 Feb 16
Last Revised:
12 Mar 16
48
(300,827)
 

29.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Babalos, Vassilios
Department of Accounting & Finance, Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
30 May 16
29
(311,895)
 

30.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
27 Apr 11
43
(309,092)
 

31.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Costantini, Mauro
ISAE, Istituto di Studi e Analisi Economica
Paradiso, Antonio
Ca Foscari University of Venice - Dipartimento di Economia
Posted:
13 Aug 12
Last Revised:
02 May 13
42
(317,749)
 

32.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Skare, Marinko
Juraj Dobrila University of Pula
Posted:
28 Jun 14
41
(285,449)
 

33.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Girardi, Alessandro
National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
Posted:
21 Nov 12
Last Revised:
02 May 13
41
(320,721)
 

34.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Rault, Christophe
Université d'Évry - Centre D'Etudes des Politiques Economiques et de L'Emploi (EPEE)
Sova, Robert
Academy of Economic Studies
Sova, Anamaria
CES Sorbonne University
Posted:
14 Feb 11
41
(311,895)
 

35.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Al-Maadid, Alanoud
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Fabio
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
08 Apr 15
Last Revised:
14 Apr 15
39
(326,816)
 

36.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Barros, Carlos Pestana
Technical University of Lisbon - Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
18 Feb 12
Last Revised:
20 Sep 12
38
(329,922)
 

37.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
de Santis, Roberta
Italian National Institute of Statistics
Girardi, Alessandro
National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
Posted:
27 Mar 13
Last Revised:
08 Apr 13
36
(336,303)
 

38.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Girardi, Alessandro
National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
Paesani, Paolo
University of Rome - Tor Vergata - Department of Economics and Institutions
Posted:
26 Dec 10
35
(333,104)
1

39.  
Long-Term Price Overreactions: Are Markets Inefficient? | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
DIW Berlin Discussion Paper No. 1444
Number of Pages in PDF File: 27
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
Sumy State Universtity
Posted:
22 Jan 15
34
(285,449)
 

40.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Yuliya Lovcha, Yuliya
University of Navarra
Posted:
28 Jan 14
Last Revised:
30 Jan 14
34
(346,389)
 

41.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Di Colli, Stefano
Federcasse Research Department
Lopez, Juan Sergio
Federcasse - Federazione nazionale banche di credito cooperativo
Posted:
10 Jul 13
33
(303,578)
1

42.  
Testing the Marshall-Lerner Condition in Kenya | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
DIW Berlin Discussion Paper No. 1247
Number of Pages in PDF File: 28
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Mudida, Robert
affiliation not provided to SSRN
Posted:
13 Oct 12
33
(339,634)
 

43.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
Sumy State Universtity
Posted:
12 Mar 15
 

44.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
01 Apr 12
Last Revised:
04 Apr 12
26
(373,801)
 

45.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Sousa, Ricardo M.
University of Minho
Posted:
27 Oct 11
25
(373,801)
1

46.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Girardi, Alessandro
National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
Posted:
26 Jul 11
23
(373,801)
1

47.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
01 Dec 11
22
(392,401)
 

48.   Incl. Electronic Paper
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
22 Nov 12
Last Revised:
02 May 13
19
(407,130)
 

49.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Sousa, Ricardo M.
University of Minho
Posted:
06 Oct 11
19
(402,174)
1

50.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Lovcha, Yuliya
University of Navarra - Pamplona Campus
Posted:
12 Apr 13
16
(407,130)
 

51.  
Long Memory in the Ukrainian Stock Market | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
DIW Berlin Discussion Paper No. 1279
Number of Pages in PDF File: 24
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
28 Mar 13
16
(421,805)
 

52.  
Fiscal Adjustments and Business Cycle Synchronization | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
CESifo Working Paper Series No. 4505
Number of Pages in PDF File: 23
Agnello, Luca
University of Palermo - Department of Economics
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Sousa, Ricardo
University of Minho - Department of Economics
Posted:
23 Dec 13
13
(431,875)
 

53.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Di Colli, Stefano
Federcasse Research Department
Di Salvo, Roberto
Federcasse - Federazione nazionale banche di credito cooperativo
Lopez, Juan Sergio
Federcasse - Federazione nazionale banche di credito cooperativo
Posted:
02 Oct 14
11
(421,805)
 

54.  
Fiscal Adjustment and Business Cycle Synchronization | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
DIW Berlin Discussion Paper No. 1339
Number of Pages in PDF File: 24
Agnello, Luca
University of Palermo - Department of Economics
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Sousa, Ricardo
University of Minho - Department of Economics
Posted:
30 Jan 14
10
(442,040)
 

55.  
Long Memory and Volatility Dynamics in the US Dollar Exchange Rate | Show Abstract | Add to Cart |
Multinational Finance Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1/2, p. 105-136, 2012
Number of Pages in PDF File: 32
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
19 Jun 15
8
(442,040)
1

56.  
Long Memory in the Ukrainian Stock Market and Financial Crises | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
Working Paper No. 13-27. – Brunel University, London,
Number of Pages in PDF File: 31
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
Sumy State Universtity
Makarenko, Inna
National Bank of Ukraine - Ukrainian Academy of Banking of the National Bank of Ukraine
Posted:
04 Oct 14
5
(461,568)
 

57.  
Modelling Long‐Run Trends and Cycles in Financial Time Series Data | Show Abstract | Add to Cart |
Journal of Time Series Analysis, Vol. 34, Issue 3, pp. 405-421, 2013
Number of Pages in PDF File: 17
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Cuñado, Juncal
University of Navarra
Gil‐Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra
Posted:
26 Apr 13
1
(502,256)
 

58.  
Are the Baltic Countries Ready to Adopt the Euro? A Generalized Purchasing Power Parity Approach | Show Abstract | Add to Cart |
The Manchester School, Vol. 79, No. 3, pp. 429-454, 2011
Number of Pages in PDF File: 26
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Ciferri, Davide
John Cabot University
Girardi, Alessandro
National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
Posted:
21 Apr 11
1
(502,256)
 

59.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
You, Kefei
University of Greenwich
Posted:
13 Jul 16
0
(426,832)
 

60.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Cerrato, Mario
University of Glasgow
Zhang, Xuan
University of Glasgow
Posted:
13 Jul 16
0
(466,355)
 

61.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Catik, Nazif
Ege University Department of Economics
Helmi, Mohamad Husam
Brunel University London
Menla Ali, Faek
Brunel University - Economics and Finance Department
Akdeniz, Coskun
Ege University - Department of Economics
Posted:
19 Jun 16
0
(416,883)
 

62.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Lodh, Suman
Middlesex University
Nandy, Monomita
Brunel University London
Posted:
25 May 16
0
(436,989)
 

63.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Costamagna, Rodrigo
INALDE Business School
Rossini, Gustavo
Universidad Nacional del Litoral
Posted:
25 May 16
0
(466,355)
 

64.  
Calendar Anomalies in the Ukrainian Stock Market | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
DIW Berlin Discussion Paper No. 1573
Number of Pages in PDF File: 37
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Plastun, Alex
Sumy State Universtity
Posted:
28 Apr 16
Last Revised:
21 May 16
0
(421,805)
 

65.  
Detecting 'Fake' Price Movements: A Convergence/Divergence Indicator | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
Brunel University London, Economics and Finance Working Paper No. 15-15
Number of Pages in PDF File: 24
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Plastun, Alex
Sumy State Universtity
Posted:
26 Mar 16
Last Revised:
15 Sep 16
0
(134,630)
 

66.  
Exchange Rates and Macro News in Emerging Markets | Show Abstract | Download This Paper | Open PDF in Browser |
DIW Berlin Discussion Paper No. 1558
Number of Pages in PDF File: 22
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Spagnolo, Fabio
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
17 Mar 16
0
(392,401)
 

67.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Catik, Nazif
Ege University
Helmi, Mohamad Husam
Brunel University London
Menla Ali, Faek
Brunel University - Economics and Finance Department
Tajik, Mohammad
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Posted:
09 Mar 16
0
(353,687)
 

68.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Menla Ali, Faek
Brunel University - Economics and Finance Department
Spagnolo, Fabio
Brunel University London - Economics and Finance
Spagnolo, Nicola
Brunel University
Posted:
22 Dec 15
0
(357,511)
 

69.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Carcel, Hector
University of Navarra - School of Economics
Gil-Alana, Luis A.
University of Navarra - Department of Economics
Posted:
22 Dec 15
0
(456,730)
 

70.  
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Sousa, Ricardo
University of Minho
Wohar, Mark E.
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Posted:
20 Mar 15
 

71.  
Time‐Varying Spot and Futures Oil Price Dynamics | Show Abstract | Add to Cart |
Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 61, Issue 1, pp. 78-97, 2014
Number of Pages in PDF File: 20
Caporale, Guglielmo Maria
Brunel University - Centre for Empirical Finance
Ciferri, Davide
John Cabot University
Girardi, Alessandro
National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT)
Posted:
04 Dec 13
0
(513,504)
1


Records 1 - 71 of 71 matches
[ 1 ]

© 2016 Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  FAQ   Terms of Use   Privacy Policy   Copyright   Contact Us
This page was processed by apollobot1 in 2.172 seconds