Feedback to SSRN

 
  • Selected
  • Entire List
 

Wirjanto, Tony S.


 SSRN Author Rank: 25,731 by Downloads
 Professor
 

University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science


 200 University Avenue West
 Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1
 Canada
 519-888-4567 x35210 (Phone)
 HOME PAGE: http://ttps://artsonline.uwaterloo.ca/safprofile/view_profile.php?id=45
 email address

  SSRN's personal information usage policy
Authors: If anything on this page requires updating or correction, please go to your SSRN User HeadQuarters and make the change.
The RSS feed for this author will notify you of all new papers and revisions as soon as they are added to the SSRN eLibrary.
Popular RSS readers
. Wirjanto, Tony S.'s Scholarly Papers Click on the title of any column to sort the table by that column.
Aggregate Statistics
Total
Downloads
961
Total
Citations
8
Authors Date Downloads
 (Rank)
Citations
ACTIONS:    Email Selected Abstracts    Export Selected Bibliographic Info    VIEW: Selected      Original List     All Versions       All Abstracts       Legend
1.  
Zhang, Feng
University of Utah - Department of Finance
Tian, Yao
University of Alberta - School of Business
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
21 Feb 07
Last Revised:
02 Nov 10
347
(48,903)
3

2.  
Do Foreigners Facilitate Information Transmission in Emerging Markets? | Show Abstract | Download |
Journal of Financial Economics. Forthcoming
Working Paper Series
Bae, Kee-Hong
York University - Schulich School of Business
Ozoguz, Arzu
University of Texas at Dallas - Naveen Jindal School of Management
Tan, Hongping
Schulich School of Business, York University
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
27 Feb 07
Last Revised:
14 Mar 12
210
(85,272)
3

3.  
Lim, Jee-Hae
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Stratopoulos, Theophanis C.
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
04 Mar 08
Last Revised:
16 Jul 14
105
(154,628)
 

4.  
Is China’s P/E Ratio Too Low? Examining the Role of Earnings Volatility | Show Abstract | Download |
Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Forthcoming
Working Paper Series
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Huang, Alan Guoming
University of Waterloo
Posted:
01 Jul 10
Last Revised:
01 Aug 11
69
(201,524)
 

5.  
The Impact of Senior IT Executives on IT Capability | Show Abstract | Download |
CAAA Annual Conference 2012
Working Paper Series
Lim, Jee-Hae
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Stratopoulos, Theophanis C.
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
11 Jan 12
62
(213,263)
 

6.  
Lim, Jee-Hae
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Stratopoulos, Theophanis C.
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
15 Jan 13
61
(215,049)
 

7.  
Sustainability of a Firm's Reputation for IT Capability: The Role of Senior IT Executives | Show Abstract | Download |
Journal of Management Information Systems, Forthcoming
Accepted Paper Series
Lim, Jee-Hae
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Stratopoulos, Theophanis C.
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
11 Feb 13
Last Revised:
20 Jul 14
38
(264,114)
1

8.  
Choi, Youngsoo
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
27 Mar 13
26
(300,536)
 

9.  
A Stylized Exchange Rate Pass-Through Model of Crude Oil Price Formation | Show Abstract | Download |
OPEC Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 177-197, September 2005
Accepted Paper Series
Yousefi, Ayoub
University of Western Ontario - Department of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
05 Nov 05
21
(320,264)
 

10.  
Redekop, James
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
27 Mar 13
20
(324,544)
 

11.  
Testing the Stochastic Implications of the Permanent Income Hypothesis Using Canadian Provincial Data | Show Abstract | Download |
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 72, Issue 1, pp. 89-108, February 2010
Accepted Paper Series
DeJuan, Joseph P.
University of Waterloo - Department of Economics
Seater, John J.
North Carolina State University
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
21 Dec 09
2
(402,607)
1

12.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Posted:
03 Sep 14
 

13.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Posted:
03 Sep 14
 

14.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Posted:
02 Sep 14
 

15.  
Zhang, Min
Independent
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Li, Xindan
Nanjing University
Posted:
01 Jul 13
 

16.  
Tao, Feiran
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
13 May 13
 

17.  
Cheng, Yin-Hei
Scotiabank
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
13 May 13
 

18.  
Xu, Dinghai
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
04 Apr 13
 

19.  
Xu, Dinghai
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
02 Apr 13
 

20.  
Xu, Dinghai
Independent
Knight, John
University of Western Ontario - Department of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
02 Apr 13
 

21.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Xu, Dinghai
Independent
Posted:
02 Apr 13
 

22.  
Xu, Dinghai
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
02 Apr 13
 

23.  
Feng, Dingan
Independent
Song, Peter X. K.
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
01 Apr 13
 

24.  
Empirical Indicators of Currency Crises in East Asia | Show Abstract |
Pacific Economic Review, 4: 2 (1999) pp. 165-183
Accepted Paper Series
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

25.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

26.  
On the Efficiency of Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models | Show Abstract |
Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, 10 (1998): 21-37
Accepted Paper Series
Lee, T. Y.
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

27.  
Nonstationary Regression Models with a Lagged Dependent Variable | Show Abstract |
Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, 25(7), 1489-1503 (1996)
Accepted Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

28.  
Sen, Anindya
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

29.  
The Role of Risk and Risk Aversion in an Individual's Migration Decision | Show Abstract |
Stachastic Models, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 129-147, 2004
Accepted Paper Series
Wang, Tan
University of British Columbia (UBC) - Division of Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

30.  
Yousefi, Ayoub
University of Western Ontario - Department of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

31.  
Yousefi, Ayoub
University of Western Ontario - Department of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

32.  
Ahmed, Shamim
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

33.  
On the Stability of Long-Run M2 Demand in Japan | Show Abstract |
The Japanese Economic Review, Vol. 51, No. 4, December 2000.
Accepted Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

34.  
An Empirical Study of Dynamic Labor Demand with Integrated Forcing Processes | Show Abstract |
Journal of Macroeconomics, Fall 1997, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 697-715.
Accepted Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

35.  
A Direct Test of the Permanent Income Hypothesis with an Application to the U.S. States | Show Abstract |
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 1091-1103, December 2004
Accepted Paper Series
DeJuan, Joseph P.
University of Waterloo - Department of Economics
Seater, John J.
North Carolina State University
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

36.  
Seasonal Unit-Root Tests on Canadian Macroeconomic Time Series | Show Abstract |
Economics Letters 34 (1990) 117-120
Accepted Paper Series
Otto, Glenn
UNSW Australia Business School, School of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

37.  
Reilly, Kevin T.
University of Leeds - Leeds University Business School (LUBS)
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

38.  
DeJuan, Joseph P.
University of Waterloo - Department of Economics
Seater, John J.
North Carolina State University
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

39.  
Aggregate Consumption Behaviour and Liquidity Constraints: The Canadian Evidence | Show Abstract |
Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 28, No. 4b, pp. 1135-115, November 1995
Accepted Paper Series
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

40.  
Testing the Permanent Income Hypothesis: The Evidence from Canadian Data | Show Abstract |
Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 563-577, August 1991
Accepted Paper Series
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

41.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

42.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

43.  
Wang, Tan
University of British Columbia (UBC) - Division of Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

44.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

45.  
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

46.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

47.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

48.  
Memartoluie, Amir
Independent
Saunders, David
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

49.  
Men, Zhongxian
Independent
Kolkiewicz, Adam W.
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

50.  
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

51.  
Risk Function of Zellner's Extended Melo Estimators and Some Monte Carlo Results | Show Abstract |
Journal of Quantitative Economics, Vol. 16, No. 2, July 2001, 1-18
Accepted Paper Series
Ghosh, Sukesh K.
Independent
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

52.  
Asymmetric Stochastic Conditional Duration Model — A Mixture-of-Normal Approach | Show Abstract |
Journal of Financial Econometrics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 469-488, 2011
Accepted Paper Series
Xu, Dinghai
Independent
Knight, John
University of Western Ontario - Department of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

53.  
An Analytic Approximation Formula for Pricing Zero-Coupon Bonds | Show Abstract |
Finance Research Letters 4 (2007) 116-126, 1997
Accepted Paper Series
Choi, Youngsoo
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

54.  
Modeling the Leverage Effect with Copulas and Realized Volatility | Show Abstract |
Finance Research Letters 5 (2008) 221-227
Accepted Paper Series
Ning, Cathy
Ryerson University
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Xu, Dinghai
Independent
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

55.  
Extreme Return-Volume Dependence in East-Asian Stock Markets: A Copula Approach | Show Abstract |
Finance Research Letters 6 (2009) 202–209
Accepted Paper Series
Ning, Cathy
Ryerson University
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

56.  
Money Stock Targeting and Money Supply: A Closer Examination of the Data | Show Abstract |
Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 11, pp. 93-104, 1996
Accepted Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

57.  
Intertemporal Substitution, Imports and the Permanent Income Model | Show Abstract |
Journal of International Economics, 40, 439-457, 1996
Accepted Paper Series
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Posted:
31 Mar 13
 

58.  
Path Dependence of Dynamic Information Technology Capability: An Empirical Investigation | Show Abstract |
Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 45-84, Winter 2011-2012
Accepted Paper Series
Lim, Jee-Hae
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Stratopoulos, Theophanis C.
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
04 Aug 11
Last Revised:
13 Jun 14
 

59.  
Role of IT Executives on Their Firm’s Ability to Achieve Competitive Advantage Through IT Capability | Show Abstract |
International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Forthcoming
Accepted Paper Series
Lim, Jee-Hae
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Stratopoulos, Theophanis C.
University of Waterloo - School of Accounting and Finance
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
15 Jun 11
Last Revised:
20 Jul 14
 

60.  
Inference about Clustering and Parametric Assumptions in Covariance Matrix Estimation | Show Abstract |
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 56 (2012) 1–14.
Working Paper Series
Packalen, Mikko
University of Waterloo - Department of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
10 Dec 10
Last Revised:
29 Mar 13
 

61.  
Insley, Margaret C.
University of Waterloo - Department of Economics
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
14 Mar 08
Last Revised:
29 Mar 13
 

62.  
Qian, Yanmin
Zhejiang University
Tian, Yao
University of Alberta - School of Business
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
21 Feb 07
Last Revised:
01 Apr 13
 

63.  
Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level | Show Abstract |
The Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 32, No. 4(Aug. 1999), pp. 906-929
Working Paper Series
Reilly, Kevin T.
University of Leeds - Leeds University Business School (LUBS)
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
25 Aug 99
Last Revised:
31 Mar 13
 

64.  
Government Expenditures and the Permanent-Income Model | Show Abstract |
REVIEW OF ECONOMIC DYNAMICS 1, 719-730.
Working Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
25 Aug 98
Last Revised:
29 Mar 13
 

65.  
Adjustment Costs and Import Demand Behavior: Evidence from Canada and The United States | Show Abstract |
Journal of International Money and Finance, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 461-476, 1997
Working Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
25 Aug 98
Last Revised:
29 Mar 13
 

66.  
Re-Examining Variance-Bounds Tests for Asset Prices | Show Abstract |
Review of Quantitative and Finance Accounting, Vol. 10, March 1998
Accepted Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
29 May 98
 

67.  
Intratemporal Substitution and Government Spending | Show Abstract |
The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 79, No. 4, November 1997
Accepted Paper Series
Amano, Robert A.
Bank of Canada & CREFE
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
10 Apr 98
 


Records 1 - 67 of 67 matches
[ 1 ]
. Wirjanto, Tony S.'s Other Papers Note: the statistics on these "Other Papers" are not used in determining an Author's rank.
Click on the title of any column to sort the table by that column.
Aggregate Statistics
Total
Downloads
579
Total
Citations
1
Authors Date Downloads
Citations
ACTIONS:    Email Selected Abstracts    Export Selected Bibliographic Info    VIEW: Selected      Original List     All Versions       All Abstracts     Legend
1.  
Bandyopadhyay, Sati P.
University of Waterloo
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Huang, Alan Guoming
University of Waterloo
Posted:
05 Jul 10
Last Revised:
14 Dec 11
400
 

2.  
The Value of Long-Term Accrual Management | Show Abstract | Download |
AAA 2010 Financial Accounting and Reporting Section (FARS) Paper
Working Paper Series
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Bandyopadhyay, Sati P.
University of Waterloo
Huang, Alan Guoming
University of Waterloo
Posted:
03 Sep 09
Last Revised:
23 Apr 11
154
 

3.  
Huang, Alan Guoming
University of Waterloo
Bandyopadhyay, Sati P.
University of Waterloo
Wirjanto, Tony S.
University of Waterloo, School of Accounting & Finance and Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science
Posted:
14 Mar 11
25
1


Records 1 - 3 of 3 matches
[ 1 ]

© 2014 Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  FAQ   Terms of Use   Privacy Policy   Copyright   Contact Us
This page was processed by apollo5 in 0.859 seconds