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Essay - Tolerating Confusion About Confusion: Trademark Policies and Fair Use


Graeme W. Austin


Victoria University of Wellington

July 2, 2012

Arizona Law Review, Vol. 50, 2007
TRADEMARK LAW AND THEORY, Graeme B. Dinwoodie and Mark Janis, eds., Elgar Press, 2007
Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 07-18
Victoria University of Wellington Legal Research Paper No. 6/2011

Abstract:     
In this essay, Professor Austin urges courts to be more critical of the role played by the "ordinarily prudent consumer" in trademark law. Trademark infringement law's "straightforward story," which typically justifies trademark rights in terms of protecting consumers from the harms of likely confusion and dilution, does not adequately capture the need for countervailing principles and policies to contribute to the shape of trademark doctrine. The essay argues that recognizing the incapacity of the likelihood of confusion and dilution analyzes to capture the empirical reality of the consumer experience should lead to a greater preparedness to weigh countervailing policies and principles more heavily in the scale.

Trademark "fair use" doctrine provides a useful context in which to explore these ideas. The Supreme Court's approach to fair use in KP Permanent Make-Up, Inc. v. Lasting Impressions I, Inc. risks valorizing consumer confusion in a context in which it should be downplayed. Moreover, the Court's holding risks constraining the analytical space available in trademark law for expression and development of policy concerns other than those that underlie trademark's straightforward story.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 34

Keywords: trademarks, consumers, fair use

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Date posted: September 2, 2007 ; Last revised: July 3, 2012

Suggested Citation

Austin, Graeme W., Essay - Tolerating Confusion About Confusion: Trademark Policies and Fair Use (July 2, 2012). Arizona Law Review, Vol. 50, 2007; TRADEMARK LAW AND THEORY, Graeme B. Dinwoodie and Mark Janis, eds., Elgar Press, 2007; Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 07-18; Victoria University of Wellington Legal Research Paper No. 6/2011. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1011200

Contact Information

Graeme W. Austin (Contact Author)
Victoria University of Wellington ( email )
PO Box 600
Wellington, 6140
New Zealand
HOME PAGE: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/law/staff/graeme-austin.asp

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