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A Definition and Defense of Hard Paternalism: A Conceptual and Normative Analysis of the Restriction of Substantially Autonomous Self-Regarding Conduct, Chapter Five - A New Normative Defense of Hard Paternalism

Thaddeus Mason Pope

Mitchell Hamline School of Law; Australian Health Law Research Center, QUT; Saint Georges University; Alden March Bioethics Institute

January 25, 2008

This is the key and final chapter of my doctoral dissertation. Chapters two, three, and four of this dissertation have already been published as free-standing law review articles. This chapter will also soon be published, though in two or three separate articles that link this normative jurisprudential theory to ongoing debates in public health.

In this chapter, I offer my own theory of justified hard paternalism. My theory is, as I will explain, a beneficence-based, consequentialist argument. First, because I am not the first to make such an argument, I quickly review other beneficence-based, consequentialist arguments for the justifiability of hard paternalism. I do not systematically evaluate this literature as I did with the consent-based, deontological arguments in article for the UMKC Law Review. Rather, my objective, here, is only to provide some background.

Second, in the central section of this chapter, I defend seven conditions as logically individually necessary and jointly sufficient to justify hard paternalism. I first separately argue that each of the seven conditions is necessary for justified hard paternalism. I then argue that the seven conditions are jointly sufficient for justified hard paternalism.

Specifically, I argue that hard paternalistic liberty limitation (HPLL) is justified if and only if: (1) there is strong evidence that each of the following six conditions is satisfied, (2) the objective of the HPLL is to protect the subject from significant harm, (3) the subject has either a low autonomy interest or an irrational (though substantially autonomous) high autonomy interest in the restricted conduct, (4) the HPLL is imposed only if no morally preferable, less autonomy restrictive alternatives (e.g. soft paternalism) for achieving the objective are available, (5) the HPLL has a high probability of success/effectiveness, (6) the harm from which the HPLL protects the subject outweighs any harm caused by the HPLL itself, and (7) the HPLL is least restrictive as necessary.

Third, in the final section of this chapter, I deal with the most typical counterarguments to justified hard paternalism. While I will motivate and answer a number of objections and counterexamples in the course of defending - in the middle section of this chapter - the individual necessity and joint sufficiency of my seven conditions; in the final section of this chapter, I separately state and respond to the four strongest standard objections to hard paternalism. These objections are: (1) the slippery slope argument - in both its logical and empirical forms, (2) the argument from paternalistic distance - also known as the best judge argument, (3) the argument from the developmental value of choice, and (4) the argument from the oppression of individuality.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 197

Keywords: paternalism, public health, autonomy, liberty

JEL Classification: K32, I18, K10

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Date posted: January 26, 2008  

Suggested Citation

Pope, Thaddeus Mason, A Definition and Defense of Hard Paternalism: A Conceptual and Normative Analysis of the Restriction of Substantially Autonomous Self-Regarding Conduct, Chapter Five - A New Normative Defense of Hard Paternalism (January 25, 2008). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1087383 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1087383

Contact Information

Thaddeus Mason Pope (Contact Author)
Mitchell Hamline School of Law ( email )
875 Summit Avenue
Saint Paul, MN 55105
United States
651-695-7661 (Phone)
901-202-7549 (Fax)
HOME PAGE: http://www.thaddeuspope.com
Australian Health Law Research Center, QUT ( email )
2 George Street
Brisbane, Queensland 4000
Saint Georges University ( email )
West Indies
HOME PAGE: http://www.thaddeuspope.com
Alden March Bioethics Institute ( email )
47 New Scotland Ave
MC 153
Albany, NY 12208
United States
HOME PAGE: http://www.thaddeuspope.com
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