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Capturing the Ghost: Expanding Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11 to Solve Procedural Concerns with Ghostwriting


Jeffrey P. Justman


University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - School of Law; Minnesota Law Review


Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 92, p. 1246, 2008

Abstract:     
The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure have not kept pace with the ways in which some lawyers are representing low-income litigants. For example, in its current form, Rule 11 only recognizes traditional full scope representation and purely pro se representation, without addressing the ever-increasing possibility that lawyers may represent civil litigants for mere portions of the trial process - the phenomenon known as limited scope representation. The failure of the Federal Rules to address this newer representational model is one of several likely causes of an increase in ghostwriting, the practice in which attorneys draft court documents for putative pro se litigants without disclosing their assistance. This Note first outlines the ethical and procedural problems ghostwriting poses, paying particular attention to the potential unfairness and inefficiency of the practice, as well as concerns that ghostwriting violates Rule 11. Because previous discussions of ghostwriting have largely focused on ethical implications of the practice, this Note analyzes criticisms of and justifications for ghostwriting from a purely procedural perspective. This procedural analysis reveals that none of the previous discussions of ghostwriting fully resolves fairness and efficiency concerns implicated by the practice. As a result, this Note proposes revising Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11 to address the practice. Such a solution would, for the first time, address limited scope representation in the litigation context, and provide concrete incentives for attorneys to disclose their assistance to putative pro se litigants.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 43

Keywords: Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 11, Ghostwriting, Pro Se Litigants, Procedural, Fairness, Efficiency, Ethics

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Date posted: February 24, 2008 ; Last revised: May 16, 2008

Suggested Citation

Justman, Jeffrey P., Capturing the Ghost: Expanding Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11 to Solve Procedural Concerns with Ghostwriting. Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 92, p. 1246, 2008. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1097104

Contact Information

Jeffrey P. Justman (Contact Author)
University of Minnesota - Twin Cities - School of Law ( email )
229 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States
Minnesota Law Review ( email )
420 Delaware St. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States
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