'Nigger': A Critical Race Realist Analysis of the N-Word within Hate Crimes Law
Gregory Scott Parks
Wake Forest University School of Law
Shayne E. Jones
University of South Florida
August 22, 2008
Is it ever not a hate crime when a White person attacks a Black person and hurls the N-word repeatedly during the attack? Some contend that where a White person is immersed in Black culture, they may use the N-word and not harbor any racial animus. An analysis of White an Black use of the N-word within 1) hip hop lyrics, racialized comedy routines, and spoken-word performances suggest that Blacks use the word frequently, but even Whites immersed in Black culture do not. This, coupled with the fact that unconscious race bias is prevelant among Whites and predicts White usage of the N-word, suggest that White usage of the N-word while assaulting a Black person is indicative of racial animus - if only at the unconscious level.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 20
Keywords: Implicit Attitudes, Nigger, Hate Crimes, Hip Hop, Black Culture, Empiricalworking papers series
Date posted: August 23, 2008
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