The N-Effect: More Competitors, Less Competition
Stephen M. Garcia
University of Michigan
Notre Dame Law School
July 1, 2009
Psychological Science, Vol. 20, pp. 871-877, 2009
The present analysis introduces the N-Effect - the discovery that increasing the number of competitors (N) can decrease competitive motivation. Studies 1a-b found evidence that average test scores (e.g., SAT scores) fall as the average number of test-takers at test-taking venues increases. Study 2 found that individuals trying to finish an easy quiz among the top 20 percent in terms of speed finished significantly faster if they believed they were competing in a pool of 10 versus 100 other people. Using a social comparison orientation (SCO) scale, Study 3 showed the N-Effect occurs strongly among those high in SCO and weakly among those low in SCO. Study 4 directly linked the N-Effect to social comparison, ruling out the "ratio-bias" and finding that social comparison becomes less important as N increases. Finally, Study 5 found the N-Effect is mediated by social comparison. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 23
Keywords: Social comparison, competition, motivation, behavioral economics
JEL Classification: C7, D2, D7, K2, L2, L4, I2Accepted Paper Series
Date posted: November 25, 2008 ; Last revised: July 21, 2009
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