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http://ssrn.com/abstract=1318637
 
 

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How the West 'Invented' Fertility Restriction


Nico Voigtländer


University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - Anderson School of Management; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Hans-Joachim Voth


University of Zurich - UBS International Center of Economics in Society; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

July 20, 2012

American Economic Review, Forthcoming

Abstract:     
Europeans restricted their fertility long before the Demographic Transition. By raising the marriage age of women and ensuring that a substantial proportion remained celibate, the "European Marriage Pattern" (EMP) reduced childbirths by up to one third between the 14th and 18th century. In a Malthusian environment, this translated into lower population pressure, raising average wages significantly, which in turn facilitated industrialization. We analyze the rise of this first socio-economic institution in history that limited fertility through delayed marriage. Our model emphasizes changes in agricultural production following the Black Death in 1348-50. The land-intensive production of pastoral products increased in relative importance. Using detailed data from England after 1290, we show that women had a comparative advantage in livestock farming. They often worked as servants in husbandry, where they remained unmarried until their mid-twenties. Where pastoral agriculture dominated, marriage occurred markedly later. Overall, we estimate that pastoral farming raised female age at first marriage by more than 4 years.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 40

Keywords: European fertility pattern, fertility decline, Malthus, demography

JEL Classification: J22, N33

working papers series


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Date posted: December 21, 2008 ; Last revised: July 20, 2013

Suggested Citation

Voigtländer, Nico and Voth, Hans-Joachim, How the West 'Invented' Fertility Restriction (July 20, 2012). American Economic Review, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1318637 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1318637

Contact Information

Nico Voigtländer
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - Anderson School of Management ( email )
110 Westwood Plaza
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1481
United States
+1-310-794 6382 (Phone)
HOME PAGE: http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/nico.v/
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
Hans-Joachim Voth (Contact Author)
University of Zurich - UBS International Center of Economics in Society ( email )
Raemistrasse 71
Zuerich, 8006
Switzerland
Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)
77 Bastwick Street
London, EC1V 3PZ
United Kingdom
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