Mapping Global Status and Trends in Patent Activity for Biological and Genetic Material
Paul D. Oldham
ESRC Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics (Cesagen)
Anthony Mark Cutter
affiliation not provided to SSRN
Genomics, Society and Policy, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 62-91, 2006
The extension of intellectual property rights into the realm of biology has emerged as an increasing focus of controversy in relation to science, biodiversity, agriculture, health, development, human rights and trade. This paper presents the results of a review of international trends in activity for patent protection between 1990-2000 and provisional data to 2004 and 2005 from over 70 national patent offices, four regional patent offices and the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) using the European Patent Office esp@cenet worldwide database. The review employed patent publication counts as an indicator of activity for traditional medicines, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and biotechnology. The research provides insights into the internationalisation of patent activity in multiple areas of biology. The review emphasises the need to combine the further development of quantitative methods with qualitative analysis of the implications of international patent activity in relation to biological and genetic material for science, society and policy.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 30
Keywords: biodiversity, intellectual property, patents, convention on biological diversity, genomics, proteomics, stem cells, patent sectors, patent trends
JEL Classification: K11, K33, L43, L66, O13, O31, O33, O34, Q00Accepted Paper Series
Date posted: January 23, 2009
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