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The Rise and Fall of the First American Patent Thicket: The Sewing Machine War of the 1850s


Adam Mossoff


George Mason University School of Law

March 6, 2009

Arizona Law Review, Vol. 53, pp. 165-211, 2011
George Mason Law & Economics Research Paper No. 09-19

Abstract:     
When Michael Heller proposed that excessively fragmented property rights in land can frustrate its commercial development, patent scholars began debating whether Heller's anticommons theory applies to property rights in inventions. Do "patent thickets" exist? The rise and fall of the first American patent thicket -- the Sewing Machine War of the 1850s -- confirms that patent thickets do exist and that they can frustrate commercial development of new products. But this historical patent thicket also challenges the widely held assumption that this is a modern problem arising from allegedly new issues in the patent system, such as incremental high-tech innovation and the impact of "patent trolls." The Sewing Machine War exhibited all of these phenomena, proving that these are hoary issues in patent law. The denouement of this patent thicket in the Sewing Machine Combination of 1856, the first privately formed patent pool, further challenges the conventional wisdom that patent thickets are best solved through public-ordering regimes that limit property rights in patents. The invention and incredible commercial success of the sewing machine is a striking account of early American technological, commercial, and legal ingenuity, which heralds important empirical lessons for how patent thicket theory is understood and applied today.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 47

Keywords: A Stitch in Time: The Rise and Fall of the Sewing Machine Patent Thicket, commercial trust, e-Bay v. MercExchange, follow-on inventions, Industrial Revolution, Howe, Krems, Madersperger, monopoly, Newton, Singer, Song of the Shirt, Thimonnier, Useful Arts, Weisenthal

JEL Classification: D23, K11, O34

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Date posted: March 6, 2009 ; Last revised: June 10, 2012

Suggested Citation

Mossoff, Adam, The Rise and Fall of the First American Patent Thicket: The Sewing Machine War of the 1850s (March 6, 2009). Arizona Law Review, Vol. 53, pp. 165-211, 2011; George Mason Law & Economics Research Paper No. 09-19. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1354849

Contact Information

Adam Mossoff (Contact Author)
George Mason University School of Law ( email )
3301 Fairfax Drive
Arlington, VA 22201
United States
703-993-9577 (Phone)

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