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http://ssrn.com/abstract=1369049
 
 

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Depression Babies: Do Macroeconomic Experiences Affect Risk-Taking?


Ulrike Malmendier


University of California, Berkeley - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)

Stefan Nagel


University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business; University of Michigan Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Centre for Economic Policy Research

March 2009

NBER Working Paper No. w14813

Abstract:     
We investigate whether individuals' experiences of macro-economic outcomes have long-term effects on their risk attitudes, as often suggested for the generation that experienced the Great Depression. Using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances from 1964-2004, we find that individuals who have experienced low stock-market returns throughout their lives report lower willingness to take financial risk, are less likely to participate in the stock market, and, conditional on participating, invest a lower fraction of their liquid assets in stocks. Individuals who have experienced low bond returns are less likely to own bonds. All results are estimated controlling for age, year effects, and a broad set of household characteristics. Our estimates indicate that more recent return experiences have stronger effects, but experiences early in life still have significant influence, even several decades later. Our results can explain, for example, the relatively low stock-market participation of young households in the early 1980s, following the disappointing stock-market returns in the 1970s, and the relatively high participation of young investors in the late 1990s, following the boom years in the 1990s. In the aggregate, investors' lifetime stock-market return experiences predict aggregate stock-price dynamics as captured by the price-earnings ratio.

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Date posted: March 27, 2009  

Suggested Citation

Malmendier, Ulrike and Nagel, Stefan, Depression Babies: Do Macroeconomic Experiences Affect Risk-Taking? (March 2009). NBER Working Paper No. w14813. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1369049

Contact Information

Ulrike Malmendier (Contact Author)
University of California, Berkeley - Department of Economics ( email )
549 Evans Hall #3880
Berkeley, CA 94720-3880
United States
(510) 642-8724 (Phone)
(510) 642-6615 (Fax)
HOME PAGE: http://www.econ.berkeley.edu/~ulrike/
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)
77 Bastwick Street
London, EC1V 3PZ
United Kingdom
Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany
HOME PAGE: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/personnel/photos/index_html?key=918
Stefan Nagel
University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business ( email )
701 Tappan Street
Ann Arbor, MI MI 48109
United States
University of Michigan Department of Economics
Lorch Hall
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
United States
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
Centre for Economic Policy Research ( email )
77 Bastwick Street
London, EC1V 3PZ
United Kingdom
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