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The Costs of Multiple Gestation Pregnancies in Assisted Reproduction


Urska Velikonja


Emory University School of Law

May 6, 2009

Harvard Journal of Law and Gender, Vol. 32, 2009

Abstract:     
The United States, unlike most developed countries, does not regulate its fertility industry. Rather, it vests control over the industry to professional organizations and to market forces. While lack of regulation has produced a vibrant market for fertility services, it has also produced an undesirable consequence: a high rate of multiple gestation pregnancies, including twin pregnancies. This Article summarizes the data on the medical, psychological, and financial costs associated with multiple pregnancies to the parents, the children, and American society. It suggests that the current U.S. regulatory regime has not only failed to address these costs as they surfaced but may also have aggravated the problem. It compares the U.S. regime to approaches taken in Europe to reduce the rate of multiple gestation pregnancies and suggests that governmental intervention may be necessary. Finally, the Article proposes that regulation to improve reporting, disclosure, and clinic supervision, combined with more strictly enforced embryo transfer practices would reduce the costs of multiple births without impermissibly burdening the freedom to procreate. This proposed regulation is not only desirable, but it would also likely pass constitutional muster.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 42

Keywords: ART, assisted reproductive technolgy, infertility, multiple gestation, pregnancy, costs

JEL Classification: H51, I11, J13

Accepted Paper Series





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Date posted: May 6, 2009  

Suggested Citation

Velikonja, Urska, The Costs of Multiple Gestation Pregnancies in Assisted Reproduction (May 6, 2009). Harvard Journal of Law and Gender, Vol. 32, 2009. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1400107

Contact Information

Urska Velikonja (Contact Author)
Emory University School of Law ( email )
Atlanta, GA 30322
United States
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