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Environmental Enforcement in Dire Straits - 'There is No Protection for Nothing and No Data for Free'


Victor Byers Flatt


University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - School of Law ; University of Houston Global Energy Management Institute

Paul M. Collins Jr.


University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Political Science


Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2009
UNC Legal Studies Research Paper No. 1424214

Abstract:     
Those charged with drafting and enforcing our environmental laws have had to work with little or no information about whether or not the programs are actually working properly. There are a host of reasons for this, many of them having to do with availability of data that can be examined empirically. Using newly available data on state actions in environmental enforcement, and a new dataset of state environmental expenditures which they created, the authors of this article are able to examine for the first time the relationship between state environmental expenditures and effectiveness of state environmental enforcement for all permitted sources. They conclude that state expenditures on environmental programs are strongly associated with effective environmental compliance, which has important implications for environmental law and policy. The authors also examine the debate over the effectiveness of cooperative vs. deterrence based enforcement, relate that to findings on state expenditures, and make suggestions for improving the availability of data and environmental enforcement generally.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 44

Keywords: environment, enforcement, environmental enforcement, deterent based enforcement, cooperative based enforcement, environmental administration, environmental agency funding, agency funding, EPA, state environmental agencies

JEL Classification: C1, C82, D23, D7, H32, H51, H72, K32, Q38

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Date posted: June 25, 2009  

Suggested Citation

Flatt, Victor Byers and Collins, Paul M., Environmental Enforcement in Dire Straits - 'There is No Protection for Nothing and No Data for Free'. Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2009; UNC Legal Studies Research Paper No. 1424214. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1424214

Contact Information

Victor Byers Flatt (Contact Author)
University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill - School of Law ( email )
Van Hecke-Wettach Hall, 160 Ridge Road
CB #3380
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3380
United States
HOME PAGE: http://www.law.unc.edu/faculty/directory/details.aspx?cid=1022

University of Houston Global Energy Management Institute ( email )
Houston, TX 77204-6021
United States
Paul M. Collins Jr.
University of Massachusetts Amherst - Department of Political Science ( email )
Thompson Hall
Amherst, MA 01003
United States
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