Is Religion and Environmentalism a Complement or a Substitute?: A Club Based Approach
Anderson University - Falls School of Business
Valdosta State University
December 1, 2014
Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, 2015, Volume 11, Article 1
In this article, we analyze the causal link between membership in environmental groups and active participation and membership in religious groups. We use a club-based model and employ OLS and spatial econometrics with controls to test for whether membership and participation in a religious group is a substitute or complement for membership in environmental groups. Instrumental variables estimation was used as a robustness check. We found that religious participation and religious membership in evangelical groups are a substitute for environmental membership. Much of the work on environmental concerns has focused on answers to survey questions, not on membership. We used a dataset of environmental membership at the county level to perform our analysis. We further add quantitative evidence to the discussion by some researchers on the link between religion and environmentalism. In this respect, our work aims to investigate further the causal links between religion and environmentalism.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 29
Keywords: Evangelical, Adherence rate, environmentalism, location quotient, Religion, Substitute, Complement
JEL Classification: Q50, Q59, Z12
Date posted: July 27, 2010 ; Last revised: January 24, 2015
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