Renewable Energy and the Public Trust Doctrine
Alexandra B. Klass
University of Minnesota Law School
March 17, 2011
45 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1021 (2012)
Minnesota Legal Studies Research Paper No. 11-12
This Article explores the role of the public trust doctrine in current efforts to site large-scale wind and solar projects on public and private lands. Notably, both proponents and opponents of such renewable energy projects have looked to the public trust doctrine to advance their goals. Proponents of large-scale renewable energy projects point to the environmental and climate change benefits associated with renewable energy development and argue that the use of public lands and large tracts of private lands to facilitate such projects are both in the public interest and consistent with the public trust doctrine. At the same time, parties opposed to particular renewable energy projects have argued that the land-intensive nature of these projects as well as their potential adverse impacts on endangered species, open space, aesthetic values, and pristine landscapes will result in a violation of the public trust doctrine. Which side is right? How do we balance the benefits and harms of large-scale renewable energy projects and what role should the public trust doctrine play in setting that balance? In addressing these questions, this Article discusses the extent to which the public trust doctrine applies to on-shore and off-shore renewable energy projects on private, state, and federal lands and waters. It then discusses the potential role state and federal legislation can play in codifying or expanding the application of the public trust doctrine with regard to state and federal lands and waters. It concludes by suggesting ways in which existing statutes and new, renewable energy-specific statutes can attempt to build on the public trust doctrine to encourage renewable energy development on public lands without compromising competing public trust values.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 53
Keywords: renewable energy, wind energy, solar energy, public lands, federal lands, public trust doctrine, offshore wind, onshore wind
JEL Classification: K11, K32, K40, K41, Q2, Q4Accepted Paper Series
Date posted: March 19, 2011 ; Last revised: April 18, 2012
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