Internationalizing the Public Trust Doctrine: Natural Law and Constitutional and Statutory Approaches to Fulifilling the Saxion Vision
Michael C. Blumm
Lewis & Clark Law School
Rachel D. Guthrie
The Justis Law Firm LLC; Lewis & Clark Law School
April 20, 2011
University of California Davis Law Review, Vol. 44, 2012
Lewis & Clark Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2011-12
The public trust doctrine, an ancient doctrine emanating from Roman law and inherited from England by the American states, has been extended in recent years beyond its traditional role in protecting public uses of navigable waters to include new resources like groundwater and for new purposes like preserving ecological function. But those state-law developments, coming slowly and haphazardly, have failed to fulfill the vision that Professor Joseph Sax sketched in his landmark article of forty years ago. However, in the last two decades, several countries in South Asia, Africa, and the Western Hemisphere have discovered that the public trust doctrine is fundamental to their jurisprudence, due to natural law or to constitutional or statutory interpretation. In these dozen countries, the doctrine is likely to supply environmental protection for all natural resources, not just public access to navigable waters. This international public trust case law also incorporates principles of precaution, sustainable development, and intergenerational equity; accords plaintiffs liberalized public standing; and reflects a judicial willingness to oversee complex remedies. These developments make the non-U.S. public trust case law a much better reflection than U.S. case law of Professor Sax’s vision of the doctrine.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 71
Keywords: public trust doctrine, environmental law, natural resources law, public property law
JEL Classification: H41, H82, K11, K32, K33, N55, N56, N57, Q15, Q22, Q23, Q24, Q25, Q26, Q28, Q38, Q48Accepted Paper Series
Date posted: April 23, 2011 ; Last revised: February 17, 2012
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