The Letter of Richard Wyche: An Interrogation Narrative

Christopher G. Bradley


December 16, 2010

127 Publications of the Modern Language Association (PMLA) 626 (2012)

This is a translation, with introduction, of the Letter of Richard Wyche – one of only two heresy interrogation narratives from medieval England written from the perspective of the accused heretic.

The Letter is an autobiographical account of Richard Wyche’s interrogation, in 1402-1403, at the hands of church officials. Wyche originally composed the Letter in (Middle) English but it survives only in a Latin translation, alongside other forbidden texts in a manuscript now in Prague. Wyche wrote and covertly sent away this Letter to an audience of intimates sympathetic to the cause (the so-called Wycliffite or Lollard heresy) before his interrogations ended. Ultimately, Wyche was freed and lived several decades before he was finally burned at the stake for his heretical beliefs, in 1440.

Few similar narratives survive from the pre-modern era, and none combines public drama with novelistic inwardness, or layered artifice with personal urgency, as does the Letter. Not just a literary or religious artifact, the letter is a legal narrative comfortable alongside classics such as those presented by Natalie Zemon Davis (Fiction in the Archives) and R. Po-Chia Hsia (Trent 1475).

The Letter is a counter-authoritarian and transnational work, produced under enormous pressure and preserved in an alien land and alien language. The fact that such effort was taken to snuff it out, and to save it, lends all the more weight to this engrossing narrative. Still, the author refuses to serve as a stereotyped “heretic” or fit his story into a generalized master narrative. Instead, humanizing details and complicated emotions serve as the engines of an extended consideration of the limits of institutional demands on individual conscience. Wyche’s Letter offers an ambiguous, dramatic meditation on the boundaries of political, spiritual, and social faith, truth, and compromise.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 17

Keywords: Conscience, Wycliffite Heresy, Lollards, Legal History

Open PDF in Browser Download This Paper

Date posted: July 14, 2011 ; Last revised: July 9, 2013

Suggested Citation

Bradley, Christopher G., The Letter of Richard Wyche: An Interrogation Narrative (December 16, 2010). 127 Publications of the Modern Language Association (PMLA) 626 (2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1884589

Contact Information

Christopher G. Bradley (Contact Author)
Independent ( email )
No Address Available
United States
Feedback to SSRN

Paper statistics
Abstract Views: 599
Downloads: 88
Download Rank: 194,704

© 2015 Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  FAQ   Terms of Use   Privacy Policy   Copyright   Contact Us
This page was processed by apollo7 in 0.328 seconds