Footnotes (204)



Lessons Learned Too Well: Anonymity in a Time of Surveillance

A. Michael Froomkin

University of Miami - School of Law

April 19, 2015

This paper examines, contextualizes, and critiques an international trend towards the regulation of anonymity.

The paper describes private incentives and initiatives during the past decade that resulted in the deployment of a variety of technologies and services each of which is unfriendly to anonymous communication. It then looks at three types of government regulation, relevant to anonymity: the general phenomenon of chokepoint regulation, and the more specific phenomena of online identification requirements and data retention (which can be understood as a special form of identification).

The concluding section takes a pessimistic view of the likelihood that given the rapid pace of technical and regulatory changes the fate of online anonymity in the next decade will be determined by human rights law rather than by the deployment of new technologies or, most likely, pragmatic political choices. It therefore offers normative and pragmatic arguments why anonymity is worth preserving and concludes with questions that proponents of further limits on anonymous online speech should be expected to answer.

The consequences of an anonymity ban are likely to be negative. This paper attempts to explain how we came to this pass, and what should be done to avoid making the problem worse.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 49

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Date posted: September 24, 2011 ; Last revised: May 2, 2015

Suggested Citation

Froomkin, A. Michael, Lessons Learned Too Well: Anonymity in a Time of Surveillance (April 19, 2015). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1930017 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1930017

Contact Information

A. Michael Froomkin (Contact Author)
University of Miami - School of Law ( email )
P.O. Box 248087
Coral Gables, FL 33146
United States
305-284-4285 (Phone)
305-284-6506 (Fax)

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