How Happiness Affects Choice
University of Pennsylvania - Marketing Department
Stanford University - Graduate School of Business
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - MIT Media Laboratory
October 1, 2011
Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2012
Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers’ pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers’ choices reflect those differences. In some cases happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is determined by one’s temporal focus, such that individuals tend to choose more exciting options when focused on the future, and more calming options when focused on the present moment. These results suggest that the definition of happiness, and consumers’ resulting choices, are dynamic and malleable.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 16
Keywords: brand management, power and influence, marketing implemetation, customer relations, consumer choice, advertising, organizational change, marketing strategy, motivation, market research, happinessAccepted Paper Series
Date posted: November 1, 2011 ; Last revised: September 27, 2012
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