References (262)



Trust, Trustworthiness, and Information Sharing in Supply Chains Bridging China and the U.S.

Özalp Özer

University of Texas at Dallas - Jindal School of Management

Yanchong Zheng

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management

Yufei Ren

Union College

January 1, 2014

Management Science, Forthcoming

Whether and how trust and trustworthiness differ between a collectivist society, e.g., China, and an individualistic one, e.g., the U.S., generate much ongoing scientific debate and bear significant practical values for managing cross-country transactions. We experimentally investigate how supply chain members' countries of origin -- China versus the U.S. -- affect trust, trustworthiness, and strategic information sharing behavior in a cross-country supply chain. We consider a two-tier supply chain in which the upstream supplier solicits demand forecast information from the retailer to plan production; but the retailer has an incentive to manipulate her forecast to ensure abundant supply. The levels of trust and trustworthiness in the supply chain and supplier's capability to determine the optimal production quantity affect the efficacy of forecast sharing and the resulting profits. We develop an experimental design to disentangle these three aspects and to allow for real-time interactions between geographically distant and culturally heterogeneous participants. We observe that, when there is no prospect for long-term interactions, our Chinese participants consistently exhibit lower spontaneous trust and trustworthiness than their U.S. counterparts do. We quantify the differences in trust and trustworthiness between the two countries, and the resulting impact on supply chain efficiency. We also show that Chinese individuals exhibit higher spontaneous trust towards U.S. partners than Chinese ones, primarily because they perceive that individuals from the U.S. are more trusting and trustworthy in general. This positive perception towards U.S. people is indeed consistent with the U.S. participants' behavior in forecast sharing. In addition, we quantify that a Chinese supply chain enjoys a larger efficiency gain from repeated interactions than a U.S. one does, as the prospect of building a long-term relationship successfully sustains trust and trustworthiness by Chinese partners. We advocate that companies can reinforce the positive perception of Westerners held by the Chinese population and commit to long-term relationships to encourage trust by Chinese partners. Finally, we also demonstrate that both populations exhibit similar pull-to-center bias when solving a decision problem under uncertainty (i.e., the newsvendor problem).

Number of Pages in PDF File: 40

Keywords: Trust, trustworthiness, collectivism, individualism, western stereotypes, guanxi, China, forecast information, behavioral economics, experimental economics

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Date posted: November 19, 2011 ; Last revised: January 2, 2014

Suggested Citation

Özer, Özalp and Zheng, Yanchong and Ren, Yufei, Trust, Trustworthiness, and Information Sharing in Supply Chains Bridging China and the U.S. (January 1, 2014). Management Science, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1961774 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1961774

Contact Information

Özalp Özer
University of Texas at Dallas - Jindal School of Management ( email )
Jindal School of Management
800 W. Campbell Road
Richardson, TX 75080
United States
Yanchong Zheng (Contact Author)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management ( email )
77 Massachusetts Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02142
United States
Yufei Ren
Union College ( email )
Schenectady, NY 12308-3151
United States
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