Quis Pendit Ipsa Pretia: Facebook Valuation and Diagnostic of a Bubble Based on Nonlinear Demographic Dynamics

Peter Cauwels

ETH Zürich

Didier Sornette

Swiss Finance Institute; ETH Zurich

October 1, 2011

Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper No. 11-58

We present a novel methodology to determine the fundamental value of firms in the social networking sector, motivated by recent realized IPOs and by reports that suggest sky-high valuations of firms such as facebook, Groupon, LinkedIn Corp., Pandora Media Inc, Twitter, Zynga. Our valuation of these firms is based on two ingredients: revenues and profits of a social-networking firm are inherently linked to its user basis through a direct channel that has no equivalent in other sectors; the growth of the number of users can be calibrated with standard logistic growth models and allows for reliable extrapolations of the size of the business at long time horizons. Illustrating the methodology with facebook, one of the biggest of the social-media giants, we find a clear signature of a change of regime that occurred in 2010 on the growth of the number of users, from a pure exponential behavior (a paradigm for unlimited growth) to a logistic function describing the evolution towards an asymptotic plateau (a paradigm for growth in competition). We consider three different scenarios, a base case, a high growth and an extreme growth scenario. Using a discount factor of 5%, a profit margin of 29% and 3.5 USD of revenues per user per year yields a value of facebook of 15.3 billion USD in the base case scenario, 20.2 billion USD in the high growth scenario and 32.9 billion USD in the extreme growth scenario. According to our methodology, this would imply that facebook would need to increase its profit per user before the IPO by a factor of 3 to 6 in the base case scenario, 2.5 to 5 in the high growth scenario and 1.5 to 3 in the extreme growth scenario in order to meet the current, widespread, high expectations.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 21

Keywords: facebook, social-networking, valuation, IPO, S-curve, logistic growth, forecast, fundamental value, bubble

JEL Classification: D46, G12, G32

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Date posted: November 30, 2011  

Suggested Citation

Cauwels, Peter and Sornette, Didier, Quis Pendit Ipsa Pretia: Facebook Valuation and Diagnostic of a Bubble Based on Nonlinear Demographic Dynamics (October 1, 2011). Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper No. 11-58. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1965431 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1965431

Contact Information

Peter Cauwels
ETH Zürich ( email )
Zürichbergstrasse 18
8092 Zurich, CH-1015
Didier Sornette (Contact Author)
Swiss Finance Institute ( email )
c/o University of Geneve
40, Bd du Pont-d'Arve
1211 Geneva, CH-6900
ETH Zurich ( email )
Department of Management, Technology and Economics
Scheuchzerstrasse 7
8092 Zurich
41446328917 (Phone)
41446321914 (Fax)
HOME PAGE: http://www.er.ethz.ch/
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