Abstract

http://ssrn.com/abstract=1988038
 


 



Market-Based Instruments for International Aviation and Shipping as a Source of Climate Finance


Michael Keen


International Monetary Fund (IMF) - Fiscal Affairs Department; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute); Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)

Ian Perry


International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Jon Strand


World Bank

January 1, 2012

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5950

Abstract:     
The international aviation and maritime sectors today enjoy relatively favorable tax treatment, as their fuels are not taxed and the sectors are not subject to any value-added tax or turnover tax. Nor are these fuel uses subject to any global measures to reduce their associated CO2 emissions, even though they represent at least 5 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon charge on fuels for international aviation and shipping equal to $25 per tonne of emitted CO2 could raise about $12 billion from aviation and about $26 billion from shipping by 2020. Market-based instruments ought to be used to raise such revenue, preferably charges based on the carbon contents of fuels. Such charges would also scale back emissions by at least 5-10 percent. Developing countries ought to be able to keep their own tax revenue, and additional compensation to them for the economic burdens of these carbon charges may be warranted. Such compensation would constitute at most 40 percent of the raised global revenue. Implementing these charges can be a challenge, especially for aviation, where a large number of bilateral air-service agreements would need to be rewritten.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 67

Keywords: Transport Economics Policy & Planning, Climate Change Economics, Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases, Environmental Economics & Policies, Energy Production and Transportation

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Date posted: January 19, 2012  

Suggested Citation

Keen, Michael and Perry, Ian and Strand, Jon, Market-Based Instruments for International Aviation and Shipping as a Source of Climate Finance (January 1, 2012). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, Vol. , pp. -, 2012. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1988038

Contact Information

Michael Keen (Contact Author)
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - Fiscal Affairs Department ( email )
700 19th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20431
United States
CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)
Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany
HOME PAGE: http://www.CESifo.de
Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS)
7 Ridgmount Street
London, WC1E 7AE
United Kingdom
Ian Perry
International Monetary Fund (IMF) ( email )
700 19th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20431
United States
Jon Strand
World Bank ( email )
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States
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