Democratizing Major Forces (4cs) of Public Services: Expanding Choices and Empowering Voices
March 1, 2010
NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 71-80, 2010
The main argument of this paper is two-fold. First, it is proposed that instead of pitching against each other, “citizen, client, customer, and consumer” should be better utilized as the major democratic forces (4Cs) of the 21st Century public services. Notwithstanding the real or perceived differences between them, it is forwarded that mobilizing all these forces (4Cs: citizens, clients, customers, and consumers) separately and in combination toward improving public organizations and services is both desirable and feasible.
The second argument of the paper relates to the ‘how’ question: How can we make the best, most effective use of democratic forces (4Cs) in the struggles for improving public services? It is postulated that today’s societies should pay more attention to the diversity and quality of ‘choices’ and ‘voices’ available for the major democratic forces (4Cs) of 21st Century public services. The first aspect of the issue has something to do with the possibility of offering genuine choices to citizens, consumers, clients, and customers. The second aspect of the issue relates to the debate about how they do/might attempt to influence the governing institutions and individuals through participating in different phases of producing and evaluating public services. The article ends with a brief concluding section.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 13
Keywords: Public Services, Democratic Public Administration, Empowering Citizens, Customers, Consumers, ClientsAccepted Paper Series
Date posted: January 27, 2012 ; Last revised: January 30, 2012
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