Reversing the Privacy Paradox: An Experimental Study
Stanford University - Law School
M. Ryan Calo
University of Washington - School of Law; Stanford University - Law School
September 25, 2011
This study and paper represent a collaboration between a privacy scholar and a PhD in human-computer interaction aimed at testing the efficacy of user experience as a form of privacy notice. Notice is among the only affirmative requirements websites face with respect to privacy. Yet few consumers read or understand privacy policies. Indeed, studies show that the presence of a link labeled “privacy” leads consumers to assume that the website has specific privacy practices that may or may not actually exist.
One alternative to requiring consumers to read lengthy prose or decipher complex symbols is to influence a user’s mental model of the website directly by adjusting the user interface. Use of particular design elements influences users’ cognitive and affective perceptions of websites and can affect behaviors relevant to privacy.
Study participants will be assigned to use one of eight websites, each with a distinct design feature. Approximately 120 participants will be recruited online and complete the study at their personal computer, promoting external validity. Participants will be told they are evaluating a search engine, and must use the website’s search engine to find answers to a quiz.
Our study design enables the collection of both behavioral data and users’ cognitive and attitudinal evaluations of the site. We will measure user navigation behavior, the disclosure of personal data, such as home town, and the disclosure of incriminating personal experiences, such as downloading pirated music. Using a post-task questionnaire, we will determine participants’ mental models of the website’s data usage and policies, as well as participants’ evaluations of the website’s likely use of their personal information.
These measures will enable us to compare the effects of each of the eight design features on perceptions of privacy. We will compare traditional notice strategies with visceral notice strategies. While traditional notice is the current standard under the law, we anticipate visceral notice strategies will prove superior in eliciting accurate perceptions of the website’s information policies, and will generate less disclosive behavior. We will discuss the implications of the study’s results for both law and design.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 43Accepted Paper Series
Date posted: January 31, 2012
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