Sex Differences in Sports Across 50 Societies
Robert O. Deaner
Grand Valley State University - Department of Psychology
Brandt A. Smith
affiliation not provided to SSRN
February 22, 2012
Sports have been frequently explored in cross-cultural studies, yet scant attention has been paid to female participation. Here we coded the occurrence of sports and related activities for males and females in the societies comprising the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) probability sample. We then tested several predictions derived from evolutionary theory. As predicted, in all 50 societies with documented sports, there were more male sports than female sports; hunting and combat sports were almost exclusively male activities; and the sex difference in sports was greater in patriarchal than in non-patriarchal societies. These results show that a robust sex difference in direct physical competition co-occurs with meaningful variation in its expression.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 63
Keywords: evolutionary psychology, anthropology, athletics, competitiveness, gender, sex differences, competition, sports
Date posted: February 23, 2012
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