Effect of Migration on Agricultural Productivity and Women Empowerment in Bihar
R. K. P. Singh
Rajendra Agricultural University
Krishna M. Singh
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
A. K. Jha
Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Technology
July 17, 2012
Migration of population has been a recurrent phenomenon since the dawn of human history. Though its form has changed but remains as very dominant phenomenon in the global social system. In modern days also people migrate from underdeveloped areas to the developed ones in search of better employment and opportunity. There are far reaching consequences of migration of male labor force on their place of origin. Keeping in view the anticipated consequences of migration in place of origin, this study has been undertaken to examine the impact of male labor out-migration on rice productivity, livelihood and women empowerment on migrant household in Bihar.
The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 400 households (200 migrants and 200 non-migrants) from eight villages in Madhubani and East Champaran districts of Bihar. Migrant households and matching sample of non-migrant households were selected to undertake a comparative analysis of differences in agricultural productivity parameters and women empowerment level.
It was observed that the efficiencies of human labor and irrigation in rice production were higher than non-migrant households and statistically significant, indicating rational use of these two critical inputs on migrant households in Bihar. This observation leads to the conclusion that the migration might have helped in judicious use of human labor at native place due to migration of surplus labor force for gainful employment to destination of migration. Remittances have been utilized for meeting consumption needs, improved livelihood, better education to children and better health care facilities which help in overall improvement in livelihood on migrant households in Bihar. Migrant households also preferred to save money to meet their requirements in unforeseen situations. Hence, migration can be said to be one of risk-coping strategies for the weaker sections of the society and helped developing the saving habits among migrant households.
The allocation of remittances on agricultural inputs could have increased if proper infrastructure facilities were present in rural areas for faster dissemination of modern agricultural technology for increasing agricultural production. Level of women employment has increased on migrant households, particularly on poor households; however, work load of women has also increased. It has been observed that role of women of migrant households changed from unpaid female labor to managers of the household, however, they face problem in management of fund, technology and input-output marketing. There is a need to launch a programme for their training to improve their knowledge in financial, technological and marketing management.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 9
Keywords: migration, Bihar agriculture, remittances, women's problem due to migration
JEL Classification: I31, J11, J21, Q12working papers series
Date posted: July 17, 2012
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