Abstract

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2126778
 


 



A Transactional Genealogy of Scandal: From Michael Milken to Enron to Goldman Sachs


William W. Bratton


Institute for Law and Economics, University of Pennsylvania Law School; European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)

Adam J. Levitin


Georgetown University Law Center

July 15, 2013

Southern California Law Review, Vol. 86, pp. 783-868 (2013)
U of Penn, Inst for Law & Econ Research Paper No. 12-26
Georgetown Law and Economics Research Paper No. 12-034
Georgetown Public Law Research Paper No. 12-126

Abstract:     
Three scandals have reshaped business regulation over the past thirty years: the securities fraud prosecution of Michael Milken in 1988, the Enron implosion of 2001, and the Goldman Sachs “ABACUS” enforcement action of 2010. The scandals have always been seen as unrelated. This Article highlights a previously unnoticed transactional affinity tying these scandals together — a deal structure known as the synthetic collateralized debt obligation involving the use of a special purpose entity (“SPE”). The SPE is a new and widely used form of corporate alter ego designed to undertake transactions for its creator’s accounting and regulatory benefit.

The SPE remains mysterious and poorly understood despite its use in framing transactions involving trillions of dollars and its prominence in foundational scandals. The traditional corporate alter ego was a subsidiary or affiliate with equity control. The SPE eschews equity control in favor of control through preset instructions emanating from transactional documents. In theory, these instructions are complete or very close thereto, making SPEs a real-world manifestation of the “nexus of contracts” firm of economic and legal theory. In practice, however, formal designations of separateness do not always stand up under the strain of economic reality.

When coupled with financial disaster, the use of an SPE alter ego can turn even a minor compliance problem into a scandal because of the mismatch between the traditional legal model of the firm and the SPE’s economic reality. The standard legal model looks to equity ownership to determine the boundaries of the firm: equity is inside the firm, while contract is outside. Regulatory regimes make inter-firm connections by tracking equity ownership. SPEs escape regulation by funneling inter-firm connections through contracts, rather than equity ownership.

The integration of SPEs into regulatory systems requires a ground-up rethinking of traditional legal models of the firm. A theory is emerging, not from corporate law or financial economics, but from accounting principles. Accounting has responded to these scandals by abandoning the equity touchstone in favor of an analysis in which contractual allocations of risk, reward, and control operate as functional equivalents of equity ownership—an approach that redraws the boundaries of the firm. Unfortunately, corporate and securities law hold out no prospects for similar responsiveness. Accordingly, we await the next alter-ego-based innovation from Wall Street’s transaction engineers with an incomplete menu of defensive responses.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 87

Keywords: securitization, derivatives, CDO, CBO, CDS, Milken, Enron, SIV, Abacus, First Executive, Imperial Corporation, structured finance, firm, fiduciary, scandal, swaps, SPE, SPV

JEL Classification: G21, G32, K22, K42, M41

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Date posted: August 15, 2012 ; Last revised: July 17, 2013

Suggested Citation

Bratton, William W. and Levitin, Adam J., A Transactional Genealogy of Scandal: From Michael Milken to Enron to Goldman Sachs (July 15, 2013). Southern California Law Review, Vol. 86, pp. 783-868 (2013); U of Penn, Inst for Law & Econ Research Paper No. 12-26; Georgetown Law and Economics Research Paper No. 12-034; Georgetown Public Law Research Paper No. 12-126. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2126778 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2126778

Contact Information

William Wilson Bratton
Institute for Law and Economics, University of Pennsylvania Law School ( email )
3501 Sansom Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States
European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI) ( email )
c/o ECARES ULB CP 114
B-1050
Brussels
Belgium
HOME PAGE: http://www.ecgi.org
Adam J. Levitin (Contact Author)
Georgetown University Law Center ( email )
600 New Jersey Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20001
United States
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