Abstract

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2179396
 
 

Citations (7)



 


 



Embedded Leverage


Andrea Frazzini


AQR Capital Management, LLC

Lasse Heje Pedersen


New York University (NYU); Copenhagen Business School; AQR Capital Management, LLC; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

November 2012

NBER Working Paper No. w18558

Abstract:     
Many financial instruments are designed with embedded leverage such as options and leveraged exchange traded funds (ETFs). Embedded leverage alleviates investors’ leverage constraints and, therefore, we hypothesize that embedded leverage lowers required returns. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that asset classes with embedded leverage offer low risk-adjusted returns and, in the cross-section, higher embedded leverage is associated with lower returns. A portfolio which is long low-embedded-leverage securities and short high-embedded-leverage securities earns large abnormal returns, with t-statistics of 8.6 for equity options, 6.3 for index options, and 2.5 for ETFs. We provide extensive robustness tests and discuss the broader implications of embedded leverage for financial economics.

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Number of Pages in PDF File: 60

working papers series


Date posted: November 22, 2012  

Suggested Citation

Frazzini, Andrea and Pedersen, Lasse Heje, Embedded Leverage (November 2012). NBER Working Paper No. w18558. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2179396

Contact Information

Andrea Frazzini (Contact Author)
AQR Capital Management, LLC ( email )
Two Greenwich Plaza, 3rd Floor
Greenwich, CT 06830
United States
203-742-3894 (Phone)
203-742-3394 (Fax)
HOME PAGE: http://www.econ.yale.edu/~af227/
Lasse Heje Pedersen
New York University (NYU) ( email )
Stern School of Business, Dept. of Finance
44 West 4th St, Suite 9-190
New York, NY 10003-711
United States
HOME PAGE: http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~lpederse/
Copenhagen Business School ( email )
Solbjerg Plads 3
Frederiksberg C, DK - 2000
Denmark
AQR Capital Management, LLC ( email )
Greenwich, CT
United States
Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) ( email )
77 Bastwick Street
London, EC1V 3PZ
United Kingdom
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
Feedback to SSRN


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