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Hard, Soft & Uncertain: The Guarani Aquifer and the Challenges of International Groundwater


David N. Cassuto


Pace University - School of Law

Romulo S. R. Sampaio Sr.


Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) School of Law; PACE Law School

2013

Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, Forthcoming

Abstract:     
This Article begins with an overview of the ecology of the Guarani Aquifer region before turning to the legal and ecological problems it faces. Because the majority of the Guarani Aquifer underlies Brazil (with the rest residing below Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay), the laws and policies of Brazil have a significant managerial impact. Consequently, the Brazilian legal regime forms the focus of the first Part of the Article. The Article then analyzes the international transboundary framework before turning to the recently enacted Agreement on the Guarani Aquifer. This Agreement, signed but not yet ratified by four countries, represents a major step forward in transnational cooperation. However, its language is so broad that it elides some of the principal management challenges facing this and all transboundary aquifers.

This Article reviews the endogenous and exogenous challenges facing the Guarani Aquifer System, looking particularly at those within and arising from Brazil. It then offers an international dispute resolution framework, drawn from the United States’ doctrine of equitable apportionment, and offers some proposed amendments to the multilateral agreement for managing the Guarani.

The complexity and environmental importance of the region, as well as the looming threats presented by climate change, make the need for accurate and detailed scientific and technical information urgent and crucial. Yet, relying on such information to manage a complex natural resource also presents risks. Too often, the role of uncertainty in risk assessment and in legal and managerial decisions gets reduced or ignored. Lessening uncertainty requires reducing asymmetric information. The Agreement represents a significant (albeit preliminary) step forward. This Article argues that increasing knowledge over the regulated resource demands categorizing “hard” and “soft” uncertainties. In addition, the regulatory framework must acknowledge the unitary nature of the aquifer while remaining sensitive to differing national and local priorities.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 41

Keywords: Brazil, Guarani Aquifer, environmental law, international environmental law, transboundary, transboundary groundwater, groundwater, hard uncertainty, soft uncertain

JEL Classification: D80, D81,D82, D83, D84, H54, H70, H77, H79, H89, K32, K33, K39, N40, N46, N56, Q25, Q28, Q29

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Date posted: February 5, 2013  

Suggested Citation

Cassuto, David N. and Sampaio, Romulo S. R., Hard, Soft & Uncertain: The Guarani Aquifer and the Challenges of International Groundwater (2013). Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2212168

Contact Information

David N. Cassuto (Contact Author)
Pace University - School of Law ( email )
78 North Broadway
White Plains, NY 10603
United States
Romulo S. R. Sampaio Sr.
Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) School of Law ( email )
Praia de Botafogo, 190
13o andar
Rio de Janeiro 22250-900
Brazil
HOME PAGE: http://www.direitorio.fgv.br
PACE Law School ( email )
78 North Broadway
White Plains, NY 10603
United States
HOME PAGE: http://www.law.pace.edu
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