Belligerent Targeting and the Invalidity of a Least Harmful Means Rule

Geoffrey S. Corn

South Texas College of Law

Laurie R. Blank

Emory University School of Law

Chris Jenks

Southern Methodist University - Dedman School of Law

Eric Talbot Jensen

Brigham Young University School of Law

May 28, 2013

89 International Law Studies 536 (2013)
Emory Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13-248

The law of armed conflict provides the authority to use lethal force as a first resort against identified enemy belligerent operatives. There is virtually no disagreement with the rule that once an enemy belligerent becomes hors de combat — what a soldier would recognizes as “combat ineffective” — this authority to employ deadly force terminates. Recently, however, some have forcefully asserted that the LOAC includes an obligation to capture in lieu of employing deadly force whenever doing so presents no meaningful risk to attacking forces, even when the enemy belligerent is neither physically disabled or manifesting surrender. Proponents of this obligation to capture rather than kill, or use the least harmful means to incapacitate enemy belligerents, do not contest the general authority to employ deadly force derived from belligerent status determinations. Instead, they insist that the conditions that rebut this presumptive attack authority are broader than the traditional understanding of the meaning of hors de combat embraced by military experts, and include any situation where an enemy belligerent who has yet to be rendered physically incapable of engaging in hostilities may be subdued without subjecting friendly forces to significant risk of harm.

This essay offers our collective and — we hope — comprehensive rebuttal of this least harmful means LOAC interpretation. First, Section I reviews the fundamental principles of the LOAC that permit status-based attacks against enemy belligerents with combat power highly likely to cause death unless and until the enemy is rendered physically incapable of participating in hostilities. Section II thoroughly analyzes the affirmative prohibitions on the use of force that the LOAC — and specifically Additional Protocol I — does require, and also highlights what Additional Protocol I does not require. In particular, the fact that Additional Protocol I — by any account the most humanitarian-oriented LOAC treaty ever developed — did not impose any affirmative least harmful means obligation vis à vis belligerents undermines any assertion that such an obligation may be derived from the positive LOAC. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Section III emphasizes how this least harmful means concept, especially when derived from an expanded interpretation of the meaning of the concept of hors de combat, is fundamentally inconsistent with the tactical, operational, and strategic objectives that dictate employment of military power.

The LOAC must, as it has historically, remain rationally grounded in the realities of warfare. We are confident that anyone grappling with this issue understands that decisions related to the employment of combat power are not resolved in the quiet and safe confines of law libraries, academic conferences, or even courtrooms; they are resolved in the intensely demanding situations into which our nation thrusts our armed forces. The law must, as it always has, remain animated by the realities of warfare in the effort to strike a continuing credible balance between the authority to prevail on the battlefield and humanitarian objective of limiting unnecessary suffering. The clarity of the existing paradigm achieves that goal and does not include any legal obligation to use the least harmful means in targeting enemy belligerent personnel.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 92

Keywords: law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, IHL, law of war, belligerents, targeting, distinction, proportionality, humanity, military necessity, jus in bello, combatants, capture

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Date posted: May 28, 2013 ; Last revised: July 4, 2013

Suggested Citation

Corn, Geoffrey S. and Blank, Laurie R. and Jenks, Chris and Jensen, Eric Talbot, Belligerent Targeting and the Invalidity of a Least Harmful Means Rule (May 28, 2013). 89 International Law Studies 536 (2013); Emory Legal Studies Research Paper No. 13-248. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2271152

Contact Information

Geoffrey S. Corn
South Texas College of Law ( email )
1303 San Jacinto Street
Houston, TX 77002
United States
Laurie R. Blank (Contact Author)
Emory University School of Law ( email )
1301 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30322
United States
404-712-1711 (Phone)
HOME PAGE: http://www.law.emory.edu/faculty/faculty-profiles/laurie-blank.html
Chris Jenks
Southern Methodist University - Dedman School of Law ( email )
P.O. Box 750116
Dallas, TX 75275
United States

Eric Talbot Jensen
Brigham Young University School of Law ( email )
540 JRCB
Provo, UT 84602
United States
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