References (113)



Acquitted Conduct Sentencing in the U.S.: 'Kafka-Esque', 'Repugnant', 'Uniquely Malevolent' and 'Pernicious'?

Orhun Hakan Yalincak


August 13, 2013

Santa Clara Law Review, Forthcoming

The use of acquitted at sentencing is a highly contested practice in sentencing theory and policy. In federal court and many state courts across the United States, once a defendant is convicted, judges are routinely permitted, in fact, required to increase a defendant’s sentence based on relevant conduct, of which he was acquitted at trial, or conduct for which he was never charged. This essay highlights the issues that arise from the use of acquitted conduct sentencing under the now advisory U.S. Sentencing Guidelines. The use of acquitted conduct under the relevant conduct provisions of the Guidelines has resulted in substantially longer prison sentences with a disparate impact on racial and ethnic minorities. Acquitted conduct sentencing treats the offence admitted by a defendant, or proven to a judge or jury’s satisfaction beyond a reasonable doubt as simply a starting point in calculating a defendant’s sentence; the modified real offense approach, which incorporates relevant conduct and mandates consideration of acquitted conduct, determines the end sentence. This essay concludes that use of acquitted conduct should be prohibited both on constitutional and normative grounds. While it is outside the scope of this essay to offer a comprehensive solution or alternative to the use of acquitted conduct at sentencing, the key observation is that, since the common thread linking the constitutional and normative issues arise from the fragmented nature of U.S. sentencing policy, the solution must start with re-conceptualizing the theories underlying sentencing in the U.S.

Keywords: state punishment, theories and rationales of punishment, acquitted conduct sentencing, relevant conduct, sentencing guidelines, sentencing rationale, role of jury

JEL Classification: K14, K19, K30, K40, K41, K42, K49

Accepted Paper Series

Not Available For Download

Date posted: July 15, 2013 ; Last revised: January 31, 2014

Suggested Citation

Yalincak, Orhun Hakan, Acquitted Conduct Sentencing in the U.S.: 'Kafka-Esque', 'Repugnant', 'Uniquely Malevolent' and 'Pernicious'? (August 13, 2013). Santa Clara L. Rev. Forthcoming . Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2293449 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2293449

Contact Information

Orhun Hakan Yalincak (Contact Author)
Independent ( email )
Feedback to SSRN

Paper statistics
Abstract Views: 510
Downloads: 0
References:  113

© 2014 Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  FAQ   Terms of Use   Privacy Policy   Copyright   Contact Us
This page was processed by apollo2 in 1.047 seconds