Abstract

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2362961
 


 



Standing Outside of Article III


Tara Leigh Grove


William & Mary Law School

December 3, 2013

University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Forthcoming
William & Mary Law School Research Paper No. 09-267

Abstract:     
The Supreme Court has repeatedly insisted that standing doctrine is a “bedrock” requirement only of Article III. Accordingly, both jurists and scholars have assumed that the standing of the executive branch and the legislature, like that of other parties, depends solely on Article III. But I argue that these commentators have overlooked a basic constitutional principle: Federal institutions must have affirmative authority for their actions, including the power to bring suit or appeal in federal court. Article III defines the federal “judicial Power” and does not purport to confer any authority on the executive branch or the legislature. Executive and legislative standing instead depend in large part on the provisions conferring power on those institutions ― principally, Article II and Article I. This basic insight has important implications. I argue that the Take Care Clause of Article II helps both to explain the breadth and also to define the limits of executive standing. The executive has standing only insofar as it has an Article II power and duty to enforce and defend federal law on behalf of the federal government. The Take Care Clause does not, however, confer standing when the executive no longer asserts that law enforcement interest ― when it declines to defend a federal law. Article I, for its part, does not confer any power on Congress to enforce or defend federal laws in court. Accordingly, contrary to the assumption of many scholars, Congress lacks standing to represent the United States in place of the executive. The Supreme Court has entirely overlooked these questions of institutional power in considering issues of executive or legislative standing, including most recently in the litigation over the Defense of Marriage Act. Article III cannot confer power on the executive or the legislature that Article II or Article I denies.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 61

Keywords: Separation of Powers, standing, Congress, President, duty to defend

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Date posted: December 3, 2013  

Suggested Citation

Grove, Tara Leigh, Standing Outside of Article III (December 3, 2013). University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Forthcoming; William & Mary Law School Research Paper No. 09-267. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2362961

Contact Information

Tara Leigh Grove (Contact Author)
William & Mary Law School ( email )
South Henry Street
P.O. Box 8795
Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
United States
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