Importing Energy, Exporting Regulation

James W. Coleman

University of Calgary - Faculty of Law; University of Calgary - Haskayne School of Business

April 1, 2014

Fordham Law Review, Forthcoming

This Article identifies and addresses a growing contradiction at the heart of United States energy policy. States are the traditional energy regulators and energy policy innovators — a role that has only grown more important without a settled federal climate policy. But federal regulators and market pressures are increasingly demanding integrated national and international energy markets. Deregulation, the rise of renewable energy, the shale revolution, and new sources of motor fuel precursors like crude and ethanol have all increased interstate energy trade.

The Article shows how integrated national energy markets are driving states to regulate imported fuel and electricity based on how it was produced elsewhere. That is, states that import energy are now exporting their energy regulations to cover production in their trading partners. But exported regulation has its own problems: it threatens to splinter interstate markets, undercutting the federal push for integrated and efficient energy markets; and it violates the Constitution’s dormant commerce clause. Indeed, these innovative exported regulations are now caught up in litigation across the country.

The Article argues that, to preserve states’ role, while also maintaining a national energy market, Congress should empower the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to immunize non-discriminatory state laws from commerce clause scrutiny if, and only if, they do not threaten to splinter interstate energy markets. The project considers how these federal regulators might assess state energy laws in three salient areas: regulation of imported electricity, regulation of imported fuel, and regulation of energy export and supply chains.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 47

Keywords: Energy Law, Energy Trade, Federalism, Oil Imports, Electricity Imports, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Interstate Trade

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Date posted: April 2, 2014 ; Last revised: March 25, 2015

Suggested Citation

Coleman, James W., Importing Energy, Exporting Regulation (April 1, 2014). Fordham Law Review, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2419288

Contact Information

James W. Coleman (Contact Author)
University of Calgary - Faculty of Law ( email )
Murray Fraser Hall
2500 University Dr. N.W.
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
HOME PAGE: http://www.energylawprof.com/
University of Calgary - Haskayne School of Business ( email )
2500 University Drive, NW
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
HOME PAGE: http://www.energylawprof.com/
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