Abstract

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2423692
 


 



Feeling the Future: A Meta-Analysis of 90 Experiments on the Anomalous Anticipation of Random Future Events


Daryl Bem


Cornell University

Patrizio E. Tressoldi


Università di Padova

Thomas Rabeyron


University of Nantes

Michael Duggan


Nottingham Trent University

April 11, 2014


Abstract:     
In 2011, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology published a report of nine experiments purporting to demonstrate that an individual’s cognitive and affective responses can be influenced by randomly selected stimulus events that do not occur until after his or her responses have already been made and recorded, a generalized variant of the phenomenon traditionally denoted by the term precognition (Bem, 2011). To encourage replications, all materials needed to conduct them were made available on request. We here report a meta-analysis of 90 experiments from 33 laboratories in 14 countries which yielded an overall effect greater than 6 sigma, z = 6.40, p = 1.2 × 10^-10 with an effect size (Hedges’ g) of 0.09. A Bayesian analysis yielded a Bayes Factor of 1.4 × 10^9, greatly exceeding the criterion value of 100 for “decisive evidence” in support of the experimental hypothesis (Jeffries, 1961). The number of potentially unretrieved experiments required to reduce the overall effect size to a trivial value, estimated with the Orwin’s fail-safe N, is 544, and six of seven additional tests support the conclusion that the database is not significantly compromised by publication bias, retrieval bias, or “p-hacking” — the selective suppression of findings or statistical analyses that failed to yield statistical significance. We discuss the controversial status of precognition and other anomalous effects collectively known as psi.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 54

Keywords: precognition, psi, ESP, retrocausation, retro-priming, parapsychology


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Date posted: April 12, 2014 ; Last revised: July 23, 2015

Suggested Citation

Bem, Daryl and Tressoldi, Patrizio E. and Rabeyron, Thomas and Duggan, Michael, Feeling the Future: A Meta-Analysis of 90 Experiments on the Anomalous Anticipation of Random Future Events (April 11, 2014). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2423692 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2423692

Contact Information

Daryl Bem (Contact Author)
Cornell University ( email )
Ithaca, NY 14853
United States
Patrizio E. Tressoldi
Università di Padova ( email )
via Venezia 8
Padova, 35131
Italy
HOME PAGE: http://www.psy.unipd.it/~tressold
Thomas Rabeyron
University of Nantes ( email )
1, quai de Tourville BP
Nantes Cedex 1
Nantes
France
Michael Duggan
Nottingham Trent University ( email )
Burton Street
Nottingham NG1 4BU
United Kingdom
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