Abstract

http://ssrn.com/abstract=2423692
 


 



Feeling the Future: A Meta-Analysis of 90 Experiments on the Anomalous Anticipation of Random Future Events


Daryl Bem


Cornell University

Patrizio E. Tressoldi


Università di Padova

Thomas Rabeyron


University of Nantes

Michael Duggan


Independent

April 11, 2014


Abstract:     
In 2011, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology published a report of nine experiments purporting to demonstrate that an individual’s cognitive and affective responses can be influenced by randomly selected stimulus events that do not occur until after his or her responses have already been made and recorded (Bem, 2011). To encourage exact replications of the experiments, all materials needed to conduct them were made available on request. We can now report a meta-analysis of 90 experiments from 33 laboratories in 14 different countries which yielded an overall positive effect in excess of 6 sigma with an effect size (Hedges’ g) of 0.09, combined z = 6.33, p = 1.2 × 10-10. A Bayesian analysis yielded a Bayes Factor of 7.4 × 10-9, greatly exceeding the criterion value of 100 for "decisive evidence" in favor of the experimental hypothesis (Jeffries, 1961). Experimental tasks that required "fast-thinking" responses produced larger and more significant effect sizes than did "slow-thinking" tasks that allowed participants time to implement conscious cognitive strategies (see Kahneman, 2011). The number of potentially unretrieved experiments averaging a null effect that would be required to reduce the overall effect size to a trivial value was conservatively calculated to be 520. An analysis of p values across experiments implies that the results were not a product of "p-hacking," the selective suppression of statistical analyses that failed to yield significant results (Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2013). We discuss the controversial status of precognition and other anomalous effects collectively known as psi.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 44

Keywords: precognition, psi, ESP, retrocausation, retro-priming, parapsychology

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Date posted: April 12, 2014 ; Last revised: April 23, 2014

Suggested Citation

Bem, Daryl and Tressoldi, Patrizio E. and Rabeyron, Thomas and Duggan, Michael, Feeling the Future: A Meta-Analysis of 90 Experiments on the Anomalous Anticipation of Random Future Events (April 11, 2014). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2423692 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2423692

Contact Information

Daryl Bem (Contact Author)
Cornell University ( email )
Ithaca, NY 14853
United States
Patrizio E. Tressoldi
Università di Padova ( email )
via Venezia 8
Padova, 35131
Italy
HOME PAGE: http://www.psy.unipd.it/~tressold
Thomas Rabeyron
University of Nantes ( email )
1, quai de Tourville BP
Nantes Cedex 1
Nantes
France
Michael Duggan
Independent ( email )
No Address Available
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