Windsor Products: Equal Protection from Animus

Dale Carpenter

University of Minnesota Law School

April 14, 2014

Supreme Court Review (2014 Forthcoming)
Minnesota Legal Studies Research Paper No. 14-22

The Supreme Court's opinion in United States v. Windsor has puzzled commentators, who have tended to overlook or dismiss its ultimate conclusion that the Defense of Marriage Act was unconstitutional because it arose from animus. What we have in Justice Kennedy’s opinion is Windsor Products — an outpouring of decades of constitutional development whose fountainhead is Carolene Products and whose tributaries are the gay-rights and federalism streams. This paper presents the constitutional anti-animus principle, including what constitutes animus, why it offends the Constitution, and how the Supreme Court determines it is present. The paper also discusses why the Court was justified in concluding that DOMA arose from animus by looking at the textual, contextual, procedural, effectual, and pretextual factors that explain the law’s passage.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 104

Keywords: constitutional law, equal protection, animus, DOMA, federalism, gay rights, gay marriage, same-sex marriage

Open PDF in Browser Download This Paper

Date posted: April 16, 2014 ; Last revised: October 23, 2014

Suggested Citation

Carpenter, Dale, Windsor Products: Equal Protection from Animus (April 14, 2014). Supreme Court Review (2014 Forthcoming); Minnesota Legal Studies Research Paper No. 14-22. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2424743

Contact Information

Dale Carpenter (Contact Author)
University of Minnesota Law School ( email )
229 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455
United States
Feedback to SSRN

Paper statistics
Abstract Views: 4,166
Downloads: 829
Download Rank: 19,705

© 2016 Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  FAQ   Terms of Use   Privacy Policy   Copyright   Contact Us
This page was processed by apollobot1 in 0.203 seconds