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http://ssrn.com/abstract=401201
 
 

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To Insure Prejudice: Racial Disparities in Taxicab Tipping


Ian Ayres


Yale University - Yale Law School; Yale University - Yale School of Management

Fredrick E. Vars


University of Alabama - School of Law

Nasser Zakariya


Harvard University


Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 50
Yale Law Journal, Vol. 114, p. 1613, 2005
Yale Law & Economics Research Paper No. 276

Abstract:     
We collected data on over 1000 taxicab rides in New Haven, CT in 2001. After controlling for a host of other variables, we find two potential racial disparities in tipping: (1) African-American cab drivers were tipped approximately one-third less than white cab drivers; and (2) African-American passengers tipped approximately one-half the amount of white passengers (African-American passengers are 3.7 times more likely than white passengers to leave no tip).

Many studies have documented seller discrimination against consumers, but this study tests and finds that consumers discriminate based on the seller's race. African-American passengers also participated in the racial discrimination. While African-American passengers generally tipped less, they also tipped black drivers approximately one-third less than they tipped white drivers.

The finding that African-American passengers tend to tip less may not be robust to including better controls for passenger social class. But it is still possible to test for the racialized inference that cab drivers (who also could not directly observe passenger income) might make. Regressions suggest that a "rational" statistical discriminator would expect African Americans to tip 56.5% less than white passengers.

These findings suggest that government-mandated tipping (via a "tip included" decal) might reduce two different types of disparate treatment. First, mandated tipping would directly reduce the passenger discrimination against black drivers documented in this study. Second, mandated tipping might indirectly reduce the widely-documented tendency of drivers to refuse to pick up black passengers.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 62

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Date posted: May 1, 2003 ; Last revised: November 14, 2011

Suggested Citation

Ayres, Ian and Vars, Fredrick E. and Zakariya, Nasser, To Insure Prejudice: Racial Disparities in Taxicab Tipping. Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 50; Yale Law Journal, Vol. 114, p. 1613, 2005; Yale Law & Economics Research Paper No. 276. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=401201 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.401201

Contact Information

Ian Ayres (Contact Author)
Yale University - Yale Law School ( email )
P.O. Box 208215
New Haven, CT 06520-8215
United States
203-432-7101 (Phone)
203-432-2592 (Fax)
Yale University - Yale School of Management
135 Prospect Street
P.O. Box 208200
New Haven, CT 06520-8200
United States
Fredrick E. Vars
University of Alabama - School of Law ( email )
P.O. Box 870382
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
United States
Nasser Zakariya
Harvard University ( email )
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
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