Income-Related Biases in International Trade: What Do Trademark Registration Data Tell Us?
World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG)
Beata Smarzynska Javorcik
University of Oxford - Department of Economics; World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)
Rutgers University Department of Economics and Division of Global Affairs
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3150
Economists have long recognized that richer countries trade more among themselves than with poorer economies due to a closer match of exporter supply structures and importer preferences. In the literature, the closeness of supply and demand has traditionally been determined by the quality of products - as expressed in the so-called Linder hypothesis. This paper examines an extension of the Linder hypothesis by also considering the extent of horizontal product differentiation as another determinant of the closeness of supply and demand. The empirical analysis employs information on international trademark registrations to test whether richer countries import more from countries whose exports are of higher quality and exhibit a greater degree of product differentiation. The results lend support to the hypothesis in most consumer goods sectors but not in intermediate goods sectors.
This paper - a product of Trade, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the economic impact of protecting intellectual property rights in developing countries.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 30working papers series
Date posted: December 20, 2004
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