Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness
Richard J. Ball
Haverford College - Department of Economics
This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly correlated with happiness, (ii) quantitatively, changes in relative income have much larger effects on happiness than do changes in absolute income, and (iii) the effects on happiness of both absolute and relative income are small when compared to the effects several non-pecuniary factors.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 54
Keywords: subjective well-being, relative income, happiness
JEL Classification: D31, D63, I31working papers series
Date posted: May 20, 2005
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