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Governance Matters V: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators for 1996-2005


Daniel Kaufmann


The Brookings Institution

Aart Kraay


World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG)

Massimo Mastruzzi


World Bank Institute

September 1, 2006

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4012

Abstract:     
The authors report on the latest version of the worldwide governance indicators, covering 213 countries and territories and measuring six dimensions of governance from 1996 until end-2005: voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption. The latest indicators are based on hundreds of variables and reflect the views of thousands of citizen and firm survey respondents and experts worldwide. Although global averages of governance display no marked trends during 1996-2005, nearly one-third of countries exhibit significant changes [for better or for worse]on at least one dimension of governance. Three new features distinguish this update. (1) The authors have moved to annual reporting of governance estimates. This update includes new governance estimates for 2003 and 2005, as well as minor backward revisions to biannual historical data for 1996-2004. (2) The authors are, for the first time, publishing the individual measures of governance from virtually every data source underlying the aggregate governance indicators. The ready availability of the individual data sources underlying the aggregate governance indicators is aimed at further enhancing the transparency of the methodology and of the resulting aggregate indicators, as well as helping data users and policymakers identify specific governance challenges in individual countries. (3) The authors present new evidence on the reliability of expert assessments of governance which, alongside survey responses, form part of the aggregate measures of governance.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 110

Keywords: Governance Indicators, National Governance, Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance, Statistical&Mathematical Sciences, Scientific Research & Science Parks

JEL Classification: E00,H00,O10,C1,C3,C42,C43,D8,HO,H4,K0,K2,K4

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Date posted: September 19, 2006  

Suggested Citation

Kaufmann, Daniel and Kraay, Aart and Mastruzzi, Massimo, Governance Matters V: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators for 1996-2005 (September 1, 2006). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4012. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=930847

Contact Information

Daniel Kaufmann (Contact Author)
The Brookings Institution ( email )
1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20036
United States
202-797-6257 (Phone)
HOME PAGE: http://www.thekaufmannpost.net
Aart Kraay
World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG) ( email )
1818 H. Street, N.W.
MSN3-311
Washington, DC 20433
United States
202-473-5756 (Phone)
202-522-3518 (Fax)
HOME PAGE: http://econ.worldbank.org/staff/akraay
Massimo Mastruzzi
World Bank Institute ( email )
1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20433
United States
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