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Reckoning with Rapanos: Revisiting 'Waters of the United States' and the Limits of Federal Wetland Regulation


Jonathan H. Adler


Case Western Reserve University School of Law; PERC - Property and Environment Research Center


Missouri Environmental Law and Policy Review (MELPR), Vol. 14, No. 1, 2006
Case Legal Studies Research Paper No. 06-20

Abstract:     
Rapanos v. United States is the latest episode in the serial effort to identify the precise meaning of "waters of the United States" under the Clean Water Act. Although no single opinion in Rapanos commanded a majority of the Court, the Court delivered a discernible holding. Specifically, the Court held that the CWA jurisdiction over private lands is limited, and reaffirmed that federal regulatory authority only extends to those wetlands that have a "significant nexus" to navigable waters of the United States. While there is a clear holding in Rapanos, the lack of majority opinion will ensure continued litigation and uncertainty over the precise scope of federal regulatory authority under the CWA. Already, lower courts are adopting variable interpretations of the decision. Whether Rapanos results in an erosion of environmental protection will be a function of how various institutions and entities respond. Under Rapanos federal regulatory officials retain substantial leeway to define "waters of the United States" in expansive terms. The decision may also spur state and local governments to enhance their conservation efforts and induce policymakers at all levels of government to pursue more non-regulatory conservation strategies.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 32

Keywords: Rapanos, waters of the United States, Federal wetland regulation, wetlands, Clean Water Act, environmental protection, water pollution control, Army Corps of Engineers, navigable waters, significant nexus test, SWANCC

JEL Classification: K32, Q2

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Date posted: October 19, 2006  

Suggested Citation

Adler, Jonathan H., Reckoning with Rapanos: Revisiting 'Waters of the United States' and the Limits of Federal Wetland Regulation. Missouri Environmental Law and Policy Review (MELPR), Vol. 14, No. 1, 2006; Case Legal Studies Research Paper No. 06-20. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=938161

Contact Information

Jonathan H. Adler (Contact Author)
Case Western Reserve University School of Law ( email )
11075 East Boulevard
Cleveland, OH 44106-7148
United States
216-368-2535 (Phone)
216-368-2086 (Fax)
HOME PAGE: http://www.jhadler.net
PERC - Property and Environment Research Center
2048 Analysis Drive
Suite A
Bozeman, MT 59718
United States

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