Abstract

http://ssrn.com/abstract=967506
 


 



'Of Portuguese Origin': Litigating Identity and Citizenship Among the Little Races in Nineteenth-Century America


Ariela Julie Gross


University of Southern California Law School


University of Southern California Law Legal Studies Paper No. 07-1
Law and History Review, Vol. 25, 2007

Abstract:     
The history of race in the nineteenth-century United States is often told as a story of black and white in the South, and white and Indian in the West, with little attention to the intersection between black and Indian.

This article explores the history of nineteenth-century America's little races - racially ambiguous communities of African, Indian, and European origin up and down the Eastern seaboard. These communities came under increasing pressure in the years leading up to the Civil War and in its aftermath to fall on one side or the other of a black-white color line.

Drawing on trial records of cases litigating the racial identity of the Melungeons of Tennessee, the Croatans/Lumbee of North Carolina, and the Narragansett of Rhode Island, this article looks at the differing paths these three groups took in the face of Jim Crow: the Melungeons claiming whiteness; the Croatans/Lumbee asserting Indian identity and rejecting association with blacks; the Narragansett asserting Indian identity without rejecting their African origins. Members of these communities found that they could achieve full citizenship in the U.S. polity only to the extent that they abandoned their self-governance and distanced themselves from people of African descent.

Accepted Paper Series





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Date posted: March 7, 2007  

Suggested Citation

Gross, Ariela Julie, 'Of Portuguese Origin': Litigating Identity and Citizenship Among the Little Races in Nineteenth-Century America. University of Southern California Law Legal Studies Paper No. 07-1; Law and History Review, Vol. 25, 2007. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=967506

Contact Information

Ariela Julie Gross (Contact Author)
University of Southern California Law School ( email )
699 Exposition Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90089
United States
213-740-4793 (Phone)
213-740-5502 (Fax)

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