Table of Contents

Unapproved Genetically Modified Corn: It's What's for Dinner

Kyndra A. Lundquist, University of Iowa - College of Law

Quantifying Causal Mechanisms to Determine How Protected Areas Affect Poverty Through Changes in Ecosystem Services and Infrastructure

Paul J. Ferraro, Georgia State University - Department of Economics
Merlin Mack Hanauer, Sonoma State University - School of Business and Economics


ENVIRONMENTAL LAW & POLICY eJOURNAL

"Unapproved Genetically Modified Corn: It's What's for Dinner" Free Download
Iowa Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2015

KYNDRA A. LUNDQUIST, University of Iowa - College of Law
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The most notorious escapes of genetically modified organisms (“GMOs?) included products still in the testing phase that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (“USDA?) had never approved for sale or consumption. The USDA, more specifically, its subdivision, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (“APHIS?), must change the current culture of noncompliance among growers. Changes in the regulation of field trials of GMO products would allow U.S. growers to certify to food distributors and importers of U.S. agricultural products that crops are what growers purport them to be and that unwanted and never-approved GMOs have not contaminated their products. Better regulation would shift the costs of preventing the escapes of these seeds on to the producers rather than farmers, who might suffer economic loss if GMO seed contaminates their crops, or the public, which suffers when agricultural markets across the globe are disrupted by discovering unwanted GMO strains in food or other agricultural products.

"Quantifying Causal Mechanisms to Determine How Protected Areas Affect Poverty Through Changes in Ecosystem Services and Infrastructure" Free Download
PNAS, Vol. 111, No. 11, 2014

PAUL J. FERRARO, Georgia State University - Department of Economics
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MERLIN MACK HANAUER, Sonoma State University - School of Business and Economics
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To develop effective environmental policies, we must understand the mechanisms through which the policies affect social and environmental outcomes. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. We develop an approach to quantifying the mechanisms through which protected areas affect poverty. We focus on three mechanisms: changes in tourism and recreational services; changes in infrastructure in the form of road networks, health clinics, and schools; and changes in regulating and provisioning ecosystem services and foregone production activities that arise from landuse restrictions. The contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program have not yet been empirically estimated. Nearly two-thirds of the poverty reduction associated with the establishment of Costa Rican protected areas is causally attributable to opportunities afforded by tourism. Although protected areas reduced deforestation and increased regrowth, these land cover changes neither reduced nor exacerbated poverty, on average. Protected areas did not, on average, affect our measures of infrastructure and thus did not contribute to poverty reduction through this mechanism. We attribute the remaining poverty reduction to unobserved dimensions of our mechanisms or to other mechanisms. Our study empirically estimates previously unidentified contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program. We demonstrate that, with existing data and appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policymakers can begin to elucidate the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare.

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ENVIRONMENTAL & NATURAL RESOURCES LAW EJOURNALS

BERNARD S. BLACK
Northwestern University - School of Law, Northwestern University - Kellogg School of Management, European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)
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RONALD J. GILSON
Stanford Law School, Columbia Law School, European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)
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