Table of Contents

Measuring Environmental Action and Economic Performance in Developing Countries

S. Serban Scrieciu, Green Growth Knowledge Platform

Public Servants as Sustainability Policy Entrepreneurs in Australia: The Issues And Outcomes

Ganesh B. Keremane, University of South Australia
Jennifer Margaret McKay, University of South Australia - School of Law, University of Lincoln (UK) - Faculty of Business & Law
Zhifang Wu, University of South Australia

How Do Product Parameters Influence the Economics of Vehicle-to-Grid?

Gerald Broneske, Technische Universität München (TUM) - TUM School of Management
David Wozabal, Technische Universität München (TUM) - TUM School of Management

Sustainable Finance - A Blueprint for Severance Taxes in the Marcellus Shale

Ryan Pulver, Jackson Kelly PLLC

Analysis of Cost Containment, Cost Recovery and Sustainability of Hospital Waste Management System: Case Study of Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India

Hem Chandra, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Leela Masih, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Bharat Sah, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Sunil Shishoo, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
T.N. Dhole, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Ankita Pandey, Industrial Toxicology Research Center

An Analysis on Fight Against Climatic Changes in India

Ashutosh Kumar Srivastava, Jayoti Vidyapeeth
Puja Paul Srivastava, Jayoti Vidyapeeth

Sustainability: A Missing Essential for Development Projects

Shuchita Sharmin, University of Dhaka - Department of Development Studies

The Simple Economics of Motor Vehicle Pollution: A Case for Fuel Tax

Josef Montag, Mendel University


ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS eJOURNAL

"Measuring Environmental Action and Economic Performance in Developing Countries" Free Download
Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP) Working Paper No. 1

S. SERBAN SCRIECIU, Green Growth Knowledge Platform
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Significant advances have been made in measuring the stringency of environmental policies, and understanding the relationship between environmental action and economic dynamics, particularly in high-income countries. Despite this, unequivocal empirical evidence on the impact of environmental policies on economic performance remains elusive, with conclusions being highly dependent on the conceptual and methodological choices with respect to defining and measuring the stringency of environmental policies. Most importantly, the literature evaluating these issues in developing countries remains sparse and robust findings are even more difficult to extract.

Produced through the Green Growth Knowledge Platform's Trade and Competitiveness Research Committee, this study reviews the existing body of work in both developed, and, where available, developing countries. It provides a comprehensive assessment of how environmental policy stringency has been measured, outlining definitional and conceptual challenges. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different indicators, and their usefulness for application in developing countries. In an effort to improve our understanding of the impact of environmental policy stringency in middle and low-income countries, the study draws lessons for the prioritization of future data collection and measurement efforts. Through the study, two types of stringency indicators emerge as requiring the most attention: de facto enforcement indicators and de jure explicit measures that capture the stringency of specific environmental laws, rules and regulations. While there is no “best? conceivable measure of the stringency of environmental policies, a multidimensional approach to quantifying stringency in developing countries, with a focus on explicit direct measures, is advocated. Data collection and indicator-improvement efforts need, though, to be updated periodically and supplemented by other proxies for environmental stringency.

"Public Servants as Sustainability Policy Entrepreneurs in Australia: The Issues And Outcomes" Free Download
Keremane, Ganesh, McKay, Jennifer, & Wu, Zhifang (2015) 'Public Servants as Sustainability Policy Entrepreneurs in Australia: The Issues And Outcomes', Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp.155-175

GANESH B. KEREMANE, University of South Australia
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JENNIFER MARGARET MCKAY, University of South Australia - School of Law, University of Lincoln (UK) - Faculty of Business & Law
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ZHIFANG WU, University of South Australia
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Freshwater and its allocation between competing users and uses has always been conflict ridden, but the intensity of these conflicts has escalated in recent history because of increased urbanization, changes in diet, increased population and several local factors (Dirksen, 2002). The escalation of conflict in Australia has been the result of relatively recent policies since 1994 that require ecologically sustainable development (ESD) to be pursued. This in practice means that the environment is now a player and must be considered in water allocation processes (McKay, 2010). Australia has several well-developed state and national processes to incorporate this policy, and the technique selected is the regional water allocation plan.

"How Do Product Parameters Influence the Economics of Vehicle-to-Grid?" Free Download

GERALD BRONESKE, Technische Universität München (TUM) - TUM School of Management
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DAVID WOZABAL, Technische Universität München (TUM) - TUM School of Management
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By pooling electric vehicles (EVs) and their batteries, aggregators are able to provide services to the grid. The parameters that shape the agreement between aggregators and EV owners, such as plug-in duration and guaranteed driving range, affect the appeal of signing up with an aggregator. In this paper, we study how these product parameters influence the profitability of vehicle pools. We use a bottom-up model, addressing the entire planning problem faced by an aggregator. The model is applied to the German secondary reserve market using actual driving patterns and market data. Our results indicate that product parameters influence the value EVs have to aggregators in surprising ways, in part, contradicting previous findings in the literature. In essence, high levels of plug-in durations or low levels of guaranteed driving for planned trips need not provide the highest profit. In addition, we show that realistic non-anticipative strategies lead to annual profits in the range of € -180 and € 44 per vehicle, which is lower than figures stated in previous studies. Our results can be used as a starting point for the discussion of optimal product parameters and the design of corresponding marketing strategies.

"Sustainable Finance - A Blueprint for Severance Taxes in the Marcellus Shale" Free Download
Kentucky Journal of Equine, Agriculture & Natural Resources, Vol. 7, p. 297, 2015

RYAN PULVER, Jackson Kelly PLLC
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Since the implementation of hydraulic fracturing, natural gas extractors have been able to reach deposits of natural gas that were previously thought cost prohibitive or impossible. The Marcellus Shale, which covers much of the Mid-Atlantic region, has become a plentiful source of natural gas because of this hydraulic fracturing implementation. The environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing have been well publicized in both the media and academia. However, little has been discussed about the pragmatic and ancillary aspects of natural gas extraction in the Marcellus Shale region, namely severance taxes.

Severance taxes are excise taxes on the extraction of natural resources. The severance taxes fulfill many roles including general gubernatorial funding, environmental protection funding, and as a general deterrence to the extraction of the natural resource. Despite the broad utility of severance taxes, many states in the Marcellus Shale region have not enacted severance taxes on natural gas. With many of the issues facing states in the Marcellus Shale region such as budgetary difficulties and environmental protection, the Article postures that at least one of these states will enact a severance tax on natural gas in the near future. This Article attempts to provide a survey of severance tax policies from high natural gas producing states that already of natural severance taxes in place. In doing so, this Article emphasizes certain severance tax policies in states with active natural gas extraction as beneficial and practical for states in the Marcellus Shale region that have not yet enacted a severance tax on natural gas. In addition to endorsing certain severance tax policies, this Article also discusses federal constraints on the states’ enactment severance taxes.

"Analysis of Cost Containment, Cost Recovery and Sustainability of Hospital Waste Management System: Case Study of Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India" 
Journal of Financial Management and Analysis Vol. 27 No. 2 (Jul-Dec 2014)

HEM CHANDRA, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
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LEELA MASIH, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
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BHARAT SAH, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
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ARVIND VASHISHTA RINKOO, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
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SUNIL SHISHOO, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
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T.N. DHOLE, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
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ANKITA PANDEY, Industrial Toxicology Research Center
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Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh State of India -- a 886-bedded, tertiary care hospital -- is implementing the methods of waste utilization/recycling, for wealth generation from solid waste and also containing the cost of treatment for needy patients. The study is intended to analyze the outcome of measures adopted by the hospital for solid waste utilization/recycling, in terms of cost recovery and cost reduction in treatment of patients during the period (January 2008 to March 2014). The hospital earned Rs. 7669621 (US$ 127827) by selling the hospital solid waste materials such as disinfected/sterile, plastic/latex materials, card board, glass bottles, etc and, for containing the cost of the patients treatment, the plastic/rubber made consumable valued at Rs. 137.20 million (US$ 2.85 million) were sterilized, recycled and released.

"An Analysis on Fight Against Climatic Changes in India" Free Download

ASHUTOSH KUMAR SRIVASTAVA, Jayoti Vidyapeeth
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PUJA PAUL SRIVASTAVA, Jayoti Vidyapeeth
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The great Indian ancestors were highly concern not only with environment but also with climate, we have lot of evidences available but later on we forgotten that is why we followed the world community in nineteen century.

India enacted vital laws for environmental concern since after independency even though there was lacuna for environmental concern during framing of Indian Constitution, but India became caution after participating in fighting of environmental devil at world level.

However, the development of Indian environmental law is bit-by-bit and answering to certain Spark off the events. These can be identified in the evolution of the Indian environmental law. The U.N conference on human environment held at Stockholm in 1972 was path finder for legislation in the field of environmental laws and climatic changes. On that base line Indian parliament enacted various Act and included some of provisions relating to the environment in the Constitution like Articles 48 A and 51 A (g).

Now Indian society having hidden but deep impact of climate change, Recently a bill on climate change that aims at bringing about a comprehensive change to the country's existing laws, On the other hand In Lima conference UN member’s countries agreed on curbing Earth-warming greenhouse gas emissions.

But a mere enumeration of the strategy at various International or National level will sufficient. The starring role being played by the Indian judiciary has strengthened the environmental jurisprudence in India.

"Sustainability: A Missing Essential for Development Projects" Free Download
OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 08, No. 03, pp. 59-70, 2015

SHUCHITA SHARMIN, University of Dhaka - Department of Development Studies
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This study is an effort toward a theoretical understanding of ‘sustainability’ which follows analysis of field level realities of selected project interventions regarding sustainability. The NGO projects start with specific targets and are considered complete when those targets are achieved. However, the concern for sustainability of achieved consequences is usually never found among the objectives of a project. Reviewing relevant literature, this paper demonstrates the concern for sustainability. Sustainability when defined for development projects are considered to be those with beneficial impacts enduring beyond the original time frame of the project, and that may be diffused beyond the original spatial limits of the project. A variety of concerns for project sustainability could be identified through review of relevant literature. However, of the identified variables, previous studies recognise the absence of sufficient attention to any specific of the concerns for sustainability. Again, contradictory findings on the consequences and sustainability of consequences of the present time asset transfer projects also set the scene for necessary academic research. In this context, the issues of consequences they lead to and their sustainability remain either unresolved or superficially/unsatisfactorily addressed. Hence, the present study aims to reveal the consequences of selected asset transfer projects and their sustainability. On the basis of field level realities through the voices of project beneficiaries, the study also proposes necessary recommendations. Data is collected for particular ‘asset enhancement’ and ‘vulnerability reduction’ interventions of Chars Livelihoods Programme and River Basin Programme in a river char (RC) community named Pepulia, located in Fulchhari Union at Fulchhari Upazila in Gaibandha District. Likewise, in Char Wadel which is a river estuarine char (REC) community in Nazirpur Union at Bauphal Upazila of Patuakhali District, consequences and sustainability of consequences of interventions of Specially Targeted Ultra Poor (STUP) programme of BRAC and Disaster Preparedness and Rehabilitation Management (DPRM) project of SLOPB is studied. The respondents of the questionnaire survey were 156 beneficiaries- 34 from STUP, 42 from DPRM, 40 from CLP and 40 from RBP. They also participated in Household (HH) level interviews. focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with available bebeficiaries. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted on selected government officials and respective NGO personnel. A reciprocal relationship between HH level components and community level components was found to exist. Thus, at the community context, as interventions come, the success of the intervention and sustainability depend on the interaction of the community and HH level realities. Further, ‘type, duration, topicality, intensity, and frequency of interventions in time and space’ were also found to be crucial in this context.

"The Simple Economics of Motor Vehicle Pollution: A Case for Fuel Tax" Free Download

JOSEF MONTAG, Mendel University
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The volume of pollution produced by an automobile is determined by driver's behavior along three margins: (i) vehicle selection, (ii) kilometers driven, and (iii) on-road fuel economy. The first two margins have been studied extensively, however the third has received scant attention. How significant is this 'intensive margin'? What would be the optimal policies when it is taken into account? The paper develops and analyzes a simple model of the technical and behavioral mechanisms that determine the volume emissions produced by a car. The results show that an optimal fuel tax would provide drivers with appropriate incentives along all three margins and that only public information is needed for a fuel tax to be set optimally. In contrast, an optimal distance tax would require private information. Lastly, relative to the optimal fuel tax, a simple uniform fuel tax is shown to be progressive. Thus, being already deployed worldwide, a uniform fuel tax is an attractive second-best policy. These findings should be accounted for when designing new mechanisms to alleviate motor vehicle pollution.

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DON FULLERTON
Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of Finance, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

LAWRENCE H. GOULDER
Shuzo Nishihara Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics, Stanford University - Department of Economics, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), University Fellow, Resources for the Future

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Yale University - Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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University of Arizona - Eller College of Management

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Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government, Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), University Fellow, Resources for the Future, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

TOM TIETENBERG
Mitchell Family Professor of Economics, Colby College - Department of Economics