ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS eJOURNAL
"Toward a New Institutional Analysis of Social-Ecological Systems (NIASES): Combining Elinor Ostrom's IAD and SES Frameworks"
Indiana Legal Studies Research Paper No. 299
DANIEL H. COLE, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University Bloomington - Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis
GRAHAM EPSTEIN, Indiana University Bloomington - Department of Political Science
MICHAEL D. MCGINNIS, Indiana University Bloomington - Department of Political Science, Indiana University Bloomington - School of Public & Environmental Affairs (SPEA)
Elinor Ostrom's IAD and SES frameworks are both widely used among social scientists. Each framework suffers from significant problems not shared by the other. For instance, the IAD framework pays insufficient attention to important social and, especially, ecological variables that can affect or influence social interactions. The SES framework was designed specifically to resolve that problem, but at the cost of the dynamism inherent in the IAD framework. While the SES is capable of diagnosing social and ecological conditions at a fine level of detail, it cannot explain how various attributes interact to generate outcomes, let alone predict or prescribe changes to social-ecological conditions over time.
This purpose of this paper is to remedy both of those problems by simply combining Ostrom's two frameworks in a very intuitive way. Instead of incorporating the IAD framework into the SES framework, which was Ostrom's initial plan, we do the opposite: the first-tier SES variables simply replace the "Biophysical Conditions," "Community Attributes," and "Rules-in-Use" boxes of the IAD framework. By this simple expedient, the IAD framework deals becomes more attuned to institutional and ecological complexity, and the SES framework becomes part of a truly dynamic set of processes.
We explicate how the combined IAD-SES framework works, first in the relatively static, hypothetical context of Hardin's pasture, and then in the far more dynamic-historical context of Maine's lobster fishery. That last application shows that the two frameworks, when combined, are far more powerful than either framework on its own. In particular, we can use SES variables along with IAD processes to show how interactions of collective-action situations produce outcomes that effect the SES variables which then condition the next phase, round, period, or set of interactions.
More work remains to be done, refining and rationalizing SES variables, and further developing IAD elements (such as "Evaluative Criteria" and relations between formal rules and "rules in use") before the combined IAD-SES framework can be called a truly "New Institutional Analysis of Social-Ecological Systems" (NIASES).
"Evaluation of Climate Driven Simulations of Po River Flow from 1971 to 2000 Through Flow-Duration Curve Indices: Preliminary Results"
CMCC Research Paper No. 186
RENATA VEZZOLI, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
PAOLA MERCOGLIANO, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
SILVANO PECORA, Agenzia Regionale per l’Ambiente Emilia Romagna (ARPA)
MYRIAM MONTESARCHIO, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
ALESSANDRA LUCIA ZOLLO, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
MAURO DEL LONGO, Agenzia Regionale per l’Ambiente Emilia Romagna (ARPA)
FABRIZIO TONELLI, Agenzia Regionale per l’Ambiente Emilia Romagna (ARPA)
Climate shows a natural variability that influences the dynamics of river discharges. In particular, intense precipitations would cause floods, while prolonged dry periods are associated to droughts phenomena. In the Mediterranean area, climate change is expected to increase the frequency of these phenomena due to variations in the precipitation partitioning in both space and time. To evaluate the impacts of these changes on the Po river daily discharges, we have developed a modelling chain that includes both climate and hydrological models. The performances of the chain are currently under testing through different simulations over the period 1971-2000. These simulations are driven by precipitation and temperature from a high resolution observed climate dataset and from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, driven by perfect boundary conditions given by ERA40 Reanalysis and by suboptimal boundary conditions, using the global climate model CMCC-CM. The aim of these simulations is to investigate the uncertainties introduced by the components of the modelling chain and their effects on simulated discharges: the first simulation is used as reference simulation, the second one aims to evaluate how the uncertainties, introduced by the RCM, COSMO-CLM, propagate to the simulated discharges; and the last one is designed to evaluate the joint effects of the GCM, CMCC-CM, and the RCM on the simulation outputs. The results of such analysis will be used to qualify the XXI century climate projections and to correctly interpret climate change impacts on hydrological cycle in the future. The simulations performances are evaluated by comparing the precipitation and discharge seasonality and through five indices based on the flow-duration curve, that is representative of the probability distribution function of the river flow. To improve the simulation results a quantile-quantile correction is applied to simulated discharges using 1972-1990 data as calibration period and validating the results on 1991-2000. The quantile-quantile corrected simulations better resemble discharge seasonality and flow-duration curve. Results show how probabilistic bias correction helps in reducing the overall uncertainty.
"The Orientgate Data Platform"
CMCC Research Paper No. 195
ALESSANDRA NUZZO, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
FIORE SANDRO, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
ALOISIO GIOVANNI, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
The ORIENTGATE project fosters concerted and coordinated climate adaptation actions across the SEE region by exploring climate risks faced by coastal, rural and urban communities; contributing to a better understanding of the impact of climate variability and change on water regimes, forests and agro-ecosystems; and analysing specific adaptation needs in the hydroelectricity, agro-alimentary and tourism sectors. The principal project results include six pilot studies of specific climate adaptation exercises, a data platform connected to the EU Clearinghouse on Climate Adaptation, capacity enhancing seminars and workshops, working partnership among the hydro-meteorological offices of the SEE countries. In particular, this document provide an overview on the activities carried out on the ORIENTGATE data platform, designed to store and manage data produced by the project partners.
"Advancement Report on Adaptation and Damage Functions in the WITCH Model and Test Runs"
CMCC Research Paper No. 197
FRANCESCO BOSELLO, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), University of Milan - Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
ENRICA DE CIAN, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
LICIA FERRANNA, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)
This paper contributes to the normative literature on mitigation and adaptation by framing the question of the optimal policy balance in the context of climate catastrophic risk. The analysis uses the WITCH integrated assessment model presenting updates both in its climate change damage and adaptation components. Compared to previous model versions, the first includes a brand new damage specification accounting for the role of autonomous adaptation, ecosystems losses and, most importantly, models an endogenous link between the probability of experiencing a climate-change related catastrophic event and the temperature increase caused by GHG emissions. The second distinguishes between different adaptation types: anticipatory, reactive and investment in adaptive capacity building. Results indicate that the presence of catastrophic risk induces substantial mitigation effort even in a non-cooperative setting, that, according to the standard deterministic literature, usually presents very low mitigation efforts. Furthermore, the policy balance is realigned from adaptation toward more mitigation, and the responsiveness of mitigation to changes in adaptation decreases. Compared to a world without climate catastrophes, risk reduces the substitutability between adaptation and mitigation because only mitigation can reduce the catastrophic probability. In this setting, our analysis also shows that adaptation funds and strategic unilateral commitments to adaptation are not the most efficient ways of buying emission reduction in less developed countries, though they could create some welfare gains and induce abatement in the recipient countries.
"Urban Agriculture and the Environment"
46 The Urban Lawyer 227 (2014)
Case Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-23
CATHERINE J. LACROIX, Case Western Reserve University School of Law
As part of a broader American Bar Association project to offer guidance to urban farmers, this article considers environmental regulatory requirements and liability issues potentially affecting urban farming. Two issues are of particular interest. (1) Farming on or near contaminated urban soil has significant practical ramifications. It also can raise an array of subtle legal issues under CERCLA, depending on the farmer’s status as an owner or operator of the contaminated site. For example, urban farmers on city-owned land might find that they alone bear owner/operator liability because, under CERCLA, a city can be exempt. (2) Urban farmers also can encounter water quality protection issues with regard to storm water runoff from their operations. They can be part of the runoff problem or part of the runoff solution, depending on the nature of the farm.
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This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts in the full range of subjects that comprise Environmental Economics. Topics include economic causes and consequences of environmental changes; tax and regulatory policies that affect the environment; markets for pollution rights and related issues; government policies toward the environment; valuation of environmental resources, "green accounting" and intergovernmental cooperation in environmental policy.
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Environmental Economics eJournal
Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of Finance, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)
LAWRENCE H. GOULDER
Shuzo Nishihara Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics, Stanford University - Department of Economics, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), University Fellow, Resources for the Future
WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS
Yale University - Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
PAUL R. PORTNEY
University of Arizona - Eller College of Management
ROBERT N. STAVINS
Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government, Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), University Fellow, Resources for the Future, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Mitchell Family Professor of Economics, Colby College - Department of Economics