Table of Contents

Using Private Contracts for Climate Change Mitigation

Katerina Peterkova, Aarhus University, Department of Law, INTRAlaw centre

Valuation of a Few Ecosystem Services of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) of Uttarakhand

Nilanjan Ghosh, Independent
Kiran Rajashekariah, University of Oxford - School of Geography
Dipankar Ghosh, Independent
Ambica Paliwal, Independent

Explaining the Variation in Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Households: Socioeconomic, Motivational, and Physical Factors

Jonas Nässén, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory
David Andersson, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory
Jörgen Larsson, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory
John Holmberg, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory

Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimates of U.S. Dietary Choices and Food Loss

Martin C. Heller, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - Center for Sustainable Systems
Gregory A. Keoleian, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor

The Carbon Footprint of Games Distribution

Kieren Mayers, INSEAD
Jonathan G. Koomey, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Rebecca Hall, University of Surrey - Centre for Environmental Strategy
Maria Bauer, Sony DADC
Chris France, University of Surrey - Centre for Environmental Strategy
Amanda Webb, University of Surrey - Centre for Environmental Strategy

Exploring the Use of Ecological Footprint in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Seung?Jin Lee, University of Michigan at Flint
Troy R. Hawkins, Government of the United States of America - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati)
Wesley W. Ingwersen, Government of the United States of America - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Douglas J. Young, Montana State University - Bozeman - Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics


ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS eJOURNAL

"Using Private Contracts for Climate Change Mitigation" Free Download
Groningen Journal of International Law, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014

KATERINA PETERKOVA, Aarhus University, Department of Law, INTRAlaw centre
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Regulation of climate change is caught up in a stalemate. Differences between developed and developing countries prevent reaching an international agreement. Transnational private regulation has unclear legitimacy, effectiveness and enforcement. National efforts are valuable, but their limited geographical reach creates incentives for companies to outsource environmentally heavy activities to countries with weaker regimes, the so-called "carbon leakage" effect. As a result the carbon emissions among international supply chains amount to multiple yearly emissions of some developed countries. This gap needs to be closed if we aim for effective global solutions to climate change. The majority of scholars agree that no single regulatory tool alone can remedy the situation, but that a combination of public and private, mandatory and voluntary regimes is necessary. The author proposes that supply chain contracts are the missing piece in the international climate change regulatory matrix. The article discusses why, despite their potential, supply chain contracts have hitherto experienced only little attention and why they can be successful where other regulation fails. It concludes that the potential of private contracting should be triggered by adequate regulation.

"Valuation of a Few Ecosystem Services of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) of Uttarakhand" Free Download

NILANJAN GHOSH, Independent
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KIRAN RAJASHEKARIAH, University of Oxford - School of Geography
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DIPANKAR GHOSH, Independent
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AMBICA PALIWAL, Independent
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The study is an attempt to obtain the value of ecosystem services of the Terai Arc Landscape of Uttarakhand in India. Since this is a complex and heterogeneous landscape with forest, water bodies, and urban settlements, the estimation is a complex process. Therefore, the paper considers six ecosystem services, namely, food, hydropower, tourism, carbon sequestration, fuelwood, and fodder. We have considered 2005 as the reference year based on which all the values have been generated. This is primarily because 2005 was a normal year, and the prices were not affected by economic boom or slump. The value of ecosystem services turned out to be INR 27,784.56 million. This is indicative of the fact that if the TAL ecosystems are destroyed, the damage cost as per the figures of 2005-06 will be INR 27,784.56 million (USD 0.62 billion considering 2005-06 exchange rates). As such, in 2014-15 prices, this turns out to be INR 47,452 million (USD 0.79 billion with 2014 exchange rates), considering WPI as the adjusting factor (or inflator/deflator). This turns out to be to the tune of INR 15,022 per hectare in 2005-06, or INR 25, 655 per hectare in 2014-15 prices. The elasticity of the total value of ecosystem services with respect to the forest area turns out to be 1.52. This implies that that a decline in forest cover brings about a more than proportionate decline in the value of ecosystem services – a clear testimony that the rural poor actually lose out more than proportionately when forest cover is lost. Hence, any policy towards land-use change should be considered very carefully, and only after considering the scarcity value of the ecosystem services, i.e. the economic value loss with ecosystem service loss.

"Explaining the Variation in Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Households: Socioeconomic, Motivational, and Physical Factors" Fee Download
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 480-489, 2015

JONAS NÄSSÉN, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory
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DAVID ANDERSSON, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory
JÖRGEN LARSSON, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory
JOHN HOLMBERG, Chalmers University of Technology - Division of Physical Resource Theory

Consumption?accounted greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (GHGEs) vary considerably between households. Research originating from different traditions, including consumption research, urban planning, and environmental psychology, have studied different types of explanatory variables and provided different insights into this matter. This study integrates explanatory variables from different fields of research in the same empirical material, including socioeconomic variables (income, household size, sex, and age), motivational variables (proenvironmental attitudes and social norms), and physical variables (dwelling types and geographical distances). A survey was distributed to 2,500 Swedish households with a response rate of 40%. GHGEs were estimated for transport, residential energy, food, and other consumption, using data from both the survey and registers, such as odometer readings of cars and electricity consumption from utility providers. The results point toward the importance of explanatory variables that have to do with circumstances rather than motivations for proenvironmental behaviors. Net income was found to be the most important variable to explain GHGEs, followed by the physical variables, dwelling type, and the geographical distance index. The results also indicate that social norms around GHG?intensive activities, for example, transport, may have a larger impact on a subject's emission level than proenvironmental attitudes.

"Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimates of U.S. Dietary Choices and Food Loss" Fee Download
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 391-401, 2015

MARTIN C. HELLER, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - Center for Sustainable Systems
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GREGORY A. KEOLEIAN, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor
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Dietary behavioral choices have a strong effect on the environmental impact associated with the food system. Here, we consider the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with production of food that is lost at the retail and consumer level, as well as the potential effects on GHG emissions of a shift to dietary recommendations. Calculations are based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) food availability data set and literature meta?analysis of emission factors for various food types. Food losses contribute 1.4 kilograms (kg) carbon dioxide equivalents (CO?eq) capita−1day−1 (28%) to the overall carbon footprint of the average U.S. diet; in total, this is equivalent to the emissions of 33 million average passenger vehicles annually. Whereas beef accounts for only 4% of the retail food supply by weight, it represents 36% of the diet?related GHG emissions. An iso?caloric shift from the current average U.S. diet to USDA dietary recommendations could result in a 12% increase in diet?related GHG emissions, whereas a shift that includes a decrease in caloric intake, based on the needs of the population (assuming moderate activity), results in a small (1%) decrease in diet?related GHG emissions. These findings emphasize the need to consider environmental costs of food production in formulating recommended food patterns.

"The Carbon Footprint of Games Distribution" Fee Download
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 402-415, 2015

KIEREN MAYERS, INSEAD
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JONATHAN G. KOOMEY, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
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REBECCA HALL, University of Surrey - Centre for Environmental Strategy
MARIA BAUER, Sony DADC
CHRIS FRANCE, University of Surrey - Centre for Environmental Strategy
AMANDA WEBB, University of Surrey - Centre for Environmental Strategy

This research investigates the carbon footprint of the lifecycle of console games, using the example of PlayStation®3 distribution in the UK. We estimate total carbon equivalent emissions for an average 8.8?gigabyte (GB) game based on data for 2010. The bulk of emissions are accounted for by game play, followed by production and distribution. Two delivery scenarios are compared: The first examines Blu?ray discs (BDs) delivered by retail stores, and the second, games files downloaded over broadband Internet. Contrary to findings in previous research on music distribution, distribution of games by physical BDs results in lower greenhouse gas emissions than by Internet download. The estimated carbon emissions from downloading only fall definitively below that of BDs for games smaller than 1.3 GB. Sensitivity analysis indicates that as average game file sizes increase, and the energy intensity of the Internet falls, the file size at which BDs would result in lower emissions than downloads could shift either up? or downward over the next few years. Overall, the results appear to be broadly applicable to title games within the European Union (EU), and for larger?than?average sized games in the United States. Further research would be needed to confirm whether similar findings would apply in future years with changes in game size and Internet efficiency. The study findings serve to illustrate why it is not always true that digital distribution of media will have lower carbon emissions than distribution by physical means when file sizes are large.

"Exploring the Use of Ecological Footprint in Life Cycle Impact Assessment" Fee Download
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 416-426, 2015

SEUNG?JIN LEE, University of Michigan at Flint
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TROY R. HAWKINS, Government of the United States of America - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Cincinnati)
WESLEY W. INGWERSEN, Government of the United States of America - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
DOUGLAS J. YOUNG, Montana State University - Bozeman - Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics
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Ecological footprint (EF) is a metric that estimates human consumption of biological resources and products, along with generation of waste greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in terms of appropriated productive land. There is an opportunity to better characterize land occupation and effects on the carbon cycle in life cycle assessment (LCA) models using EF concepts. Both LCA and EF may benefit from the merging of approaches commonly used separately by practitioners of these two methods. However, few studies have compared or integrated EF with LCA. The focus of this research was to explore methods for improving the characterization of land occupation within LCA by considering the EF method, either as a complementary tool or impact assessment method. Biofuels provide an interesting subject for application of EF in the LCA context because two of the most important issues surrounding biofuels are land occupation (changes, availability, and so on) and GHG balances, two of the impacts that EF is able to capture. We apply EF to existing fuel LCA land occupation and emissions data and project EF for future scenarios for U.S. transportation fuels. We find that LCA studies can benefit from lessons learned in EF about appropriately modeling productive land occupation and facilitating clear communication of meaningful results, but find limitations to the EF in the LCA context that demand refinement and recommend that EF always be used along with other indicators and metrics in product?level assessments.

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LAWRENCE H. GOULDER
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Yale University - Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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TOM TIETENBERG
Mitchell Family Professor of Economics, Colby College - Department of Economics