Table of Contents

Trademarks, Geographical Indications and Environmental Labelling to Promote Biodiversity: The Case of Agroforestry Coffee in India

Delphine Marie-Vivien, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)
Claude A. Garcia, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)
C.G. Kushalappa, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)
Philippe Vaast, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)

EPA's Clean Power Play: Who Needs Congress?

Brian H. Potts, Foley & Lardner LLP
David R. Zoppo, Foley & Lardner LLP

Privatisation in the EU Energy Sector: The Never?Ending Story

Carlo Stagnaro, Bruno Leoni Institute

Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

Ivan T. Herrmann, Technical University of Denmark
Michael Z. Hauschild, Technical University of Denmark
Michael D. Sohn, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Thomas E. McKone, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Environmental Energy Technologies Division, University of California, Berkeley - Environmental Health Sciences Division

Using LCA?Based Decomposition Analysis to Study the Multidimensional Contribution of Technological Innovation to Environmental Pressures

David Font Vivanco, Leiden University - CML, Department Industrial Ecology
René Kemp, Leiden University - CML, Department Industrial Ecology
Ester van der Voet, Leiden University - CML, Department Industrial Ecology
Reinout Heijungs, Leiden University - Centre of Environmental Science (CML)


ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS eJOURNAL

"Trademarks, Geographical Indications and Environmental Labelling to Promote Biodiversity: The Case of Agroforestry Coffee in India" Fee Download
Development Policy Review, Vol. 32, Issue 4, pp. 379-398, 2014

DELPHINE MARIE-VIVIEN, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)
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CLAUDE A. GARCIA, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)
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C.G. KUSHALAPPA, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)
PHILIPPE VAAST, Centre De Coopération Internationale En Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Développement (CIRAD)

The district of Kodagu, also called Coorg, in the Western Ghats of India produces 2% of the world's coffee, the expansion and intensification of which have reduced the forest cover by more than 30% in 20 years. Innovative actions are therefore urgently required to link economic development and biodiversity conservation, and stakeholders are exploring three strategies to add value to coffee from Coorg and prevent further biodiversity erosion: registration of trademarks; geographical indications; and environmental certification, via eco?labels. This article analyses their respective strengths and weaknesses and discusses the synergies between them.

"EPA's Clean Power Play: Who Needs Congress?" Free Download
The Electricity Journal, July 2014, Forthcoming

BRIAN H. POTTS, Foley & Lardner LLP
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DAVID R. ZOPPO, Foley & Lardner LLP
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The much anticipated centerpiece of President Obama’s climate plan is finally here. The proposed rule — which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) calls its “Clean Power Plan? — would slash greenhouse gas emissions from existing power plants in this country by 30 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.

In this article, we provide a short overview of the proposal, attempt to show which states will be the most impacted, and analyze the three biggest legal questions facing the rule, with the aim of answering the question everyone is asking: Will EPA’s Clean Power Plan make it through the courts? We conclude that EPA’s legal justifications for its Clean Power Plan are tenuous, and as written, the courts are likely to overturn it — at least in part.

"Privatisation in the EU Energy Sector: The Never?Ending Story" Fee Download
Economic Affairs, Vol. 34, Issue 2, pp. 238-253, 2014

CARLO STAGNARO, Bruno Leoni Institute
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Following the wave of privatisation that started in Britain's energy sectors in the early 1980s, much progress has been made but the results still fall short of the potential benefits. In this paper both the theoretical arguments and the existing empirical evidence on privatisation in the energy sector are examined, with particular reference to European experience. The paper also presents some additional empirical analysis on the effect of privatisation on competition in the electricity market. Although not fully satisfactory, the analysis seems to be consistent with theoretical arguments. In particular, ‘mostly privatised’ industries tend to be associated with incumbents having lower market shares.

"Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support" Fee Download
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 366-379, 2014

IVAN T. HERRMANN, Technical University of Denmark
MICHAEL Z. HAUSCHILD, Technical University of Denmark
MICHAEL D. SOHN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
THOMAS E. MCKONE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Environmental Energy Technologies Division, University of California, Berkeley - Environmental Health Sciences Division
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The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support the decision maker (DM) in making the best possible choice for the environment. At present, some DMs do not trust the LCA to be a reliable decision?support tool - often because DMs consider the uncertainty of an LCA to be too large. The standard evaluation of uncertainty in LCAs is an ex?post approach that can be described as a variance simulation based on individual data points used in an LCA. This article develops and proposes a taxonomy for LCAs based on extensive research in the LCA, management, and economic literature. This taxonomy can be used ex ante to support planning and communication between an AN and DM regarding which type of LCA study to employ for the decision context at hand. This taxonomy enables the derivation of an LCA classification matrix to clearly identify and communicate the type of a given LCA. By relating the LCA classification matrix to statistical principles, we can also rank the different types of LCA on an expected inherent uncertainty scale that can be used to confront and address potential uncertainty. However, this article does not attempt to offer a quantitative approach for assessing uncertainty in LCAs used for decision support.

"Using LCA?Based Decomposition Analysis to Study the Multidimensional Contribution of Technological Innovation to Environmental Pressures" Fee Download
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 380-392, 2014

DAVID FONT VIVANCO, Leiden University - CML, Department Industrial Ecology
RENÉ KEMP, Leiden University - CML, Department Industrial Ecology
ESTER VAN DER VOET, Leiden University - CML, Department Industrial Ecology
REINOUT HEIJUNGS, Leiden University - Centre of Environmental Science (CML)
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This article presents a general framework for macroenvironmental assessment, combining life cycle assessment (LCA) with the IPAT equation, and explores its combination with decomposition analysis to assess the multidimensional contribution of technological innovation to environmental pressures. This approach is illustrated with a case study in which carbon dioxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) air emissions from diesel passenger cars in Europe during the period 1990–2005 are first decomposed using index decomposition analysis into technology, consumption activity, and population growth effects. By a second decomposition, the contribution of a specific innovation (diesel engine) is calculated on the basis of the technology and consumption activity effects, through a technological comparison with a relevant alternative and the calculation of the rebound effect, respectively. The empirical analysis for diesel passenger cars highlights the discrepancies between the micro (LCA) and macro (IPAT?LCA) analytical approaches. Thus, whereas diesel engines present a relatively less?pollutant environmental product profile than their gasoline counterparts, total CO and NO emissions would have increased partly as a consequence of their introduction, mainly driven by the increase in travel demand caused by the induced direct price rebound effect from fuel savings and fuel price differences. The counterintuitive result shows the need for such an analysis.

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DON FULLERTON
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LAWRENCE H. GOULDER
Shuzo Nishihara Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics, Stanford University - Department of Economics, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), University Fellow, Resources for the Future

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Yale University - Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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