ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS eJOURNAL

"China – Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures on Broiler Products from the United States: How the Chickens Came Home to Roost" Free Download
Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Research Paper No. RSCAS 2014/129

THOMAS J. PRUSA, Rutgers University, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
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EDWIN VERMULST, Vermulst & Waer
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The WTO panel report on China – Anti-dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures on Broiler Products from the United States was circulated to Members on 2 August 2013. In the report the Panel examined a variety of issues challenged by the United States under various provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, the Anti-dumping Agreement and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The Panel upheld the United States’ claims on the majority of the issues, which covered certain procedural aspects of the anti-dumping and countervailing investigations such as the right to disclosure of "essential facts", as well as the substantive determinations including costing issues, the imposition of the "all others" rate on the basis of "facts available", the price effects’ analyses, the sufficiency of the public notices and others. Notably the costing issues that came up in the case, although decided mostly on procedural grounds, provide food for thought and are likely to feature again in future disputes.

"Wind Farm Siting Using a Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach: A Case Study of the Städteregion Aachen" Free Download
FCN Working Paper No. 16/2014

TIM MORITZ HÖFER, RWTH Aachen University
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YASIN SUNAK, RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)
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HAFIZ SIDDIQUE, RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)
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REINHARD MADLENER, RWTH Aachen University
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Wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Germany and plays a key role regarding energy and climate policy targets of the German government. However, a further diffusion of wind farms involves strong spatial implications that refer to various adverse effects on landscape (onshore wind), noise level, and wildlife. Negative environmental impacts caused by the sometimes suboptimal siting of wind farms have induced an increasing gap between the social acceptance of this technology on the global and local levels. Particularly on the local level, siting processes of wind farm projects often trigger public protest. The aim of this paper is to improve the siting assessment by providing a holistic multi-criteria decision making approach that incorporates techno-economic, socio-political, and environmental criteria, which are defined in a way that social acceptance-related issues are specifically emphasized. We apply a GIS-based Analytic Hierarchy Process approach, where a group of local experts is asked to pairwise compare the incorporated criteria in order to derive the relative importance of each criterion. The results obtained indicate that 9.4% of the study area is still available for wind energy development, whereas only 1.74% of the region is characterized by high suitability. In particular, the northern part of the region still offers substantial unexploited wind energy potential. A comparison with the location of existing wind farms and a sensitivity analysis validate the reliability and accuracy of the model results.

"What Are the Carbon Emissions Elasticities for Income and Population? Bridging STIRPAT and EKC via Robust Heterogeneous Panel Estimates" Free Download
Global Environmental Change, Vol. 31, pp. 62-73, 2015

BRANT LIDDLE, Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre
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Knowledge of the carbon emissions elasticities of income and population is important both for climate change policy/negotiations and for generating projections of carbon emissions. However, previous estimations of these elasticities using the well-known STIRPAT framework have produced such wide-ranging estimates that they add little insight. This paper presents estimates of the STIRPAT model that address that shortcoming, as well as the issues of cross-sectional dependence, heterogeneity, and the nonlinear transformation of a potentially integrated variable, i.e., income. Among the findings are that the carbon emissions elasticity of income is highly robust; and that the income elasticity for OECD countries is less than one, and likely less than the non-OECD country income elasticity, which is not significantly different from one. By contrast, the carbon emissions elasticity of population is not robust; however, that elasticity is likely not statistically significantly different from one for either OECD or non-OECD countries. Lastly, the heterogeneous estimators were exploited to reject a Carbon Kuznets Curve: while the country-specific income elasticities declined over observed average income-levels, the trend line had a slight U-shape.

"Unapproved Genetically Modified Corn: It's What's for Dinner" Free Download
Iowa Law Review, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2015

KYNDRA A. LUNDQUIST, University of Iowa - College of Law
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The most notorious escapes of genetically modified organisms (“GMOs?) included products still in the testing phase that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (“USDA?) had never approved for sale or consumption. The USDA, more specifically, its subdivision, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (“APHIS?), must change the current culture of noncompliance among growers. Changes in the regulation of field trials of GMO products would allow U.S. growers to certify to food distributors and importers of U.S. agricultural products that crops are what growers purport them to be and that unwanted and never-approved GMOs have not contaminated their products. Better regulation would shift the costs of preventing the escapes of these seeds on to the producers rather than farmers, who might suffer economic loss if GMO seed contaminates their crops, or the public, which suffers when agricultural markets across the globe are disrupted by discovering unwanted GMO strains in food or other agricultural products.

"Testing Greenhouse Gasses in Slovakia for Environmental Kuznets Curve and Pollution Haven Hypothesis" Free Download
Journal of International Studies, Vol. 7, No 2, 2014, pp. 161-177

JANA KUBICOVA, University of Economics in Bratislava
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The analytical focus in this paper is to determine the tenability of two theoretical concepts of environmental economics in the Slovak Republic: the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve and the hypothesis of Slovakia as a pollution haven. We have chosen to focus on a few selected sources of environmental pollution in the Slovak Republic, specifically greenhouse gas emissions. First we examine the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curves in connection with selected greenhouse gas emissions in the Slovak Republic from the years 1993-2011. Next we analyze the possible causal relationship between the net inflows of foreign direct investment and the volume of selected greenhouse gas emissions in the Slovak Republic. The existence of an environmental Kuznets curve was not confirmed. It is also possible to make the same conclusion in the relationships of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and per fluorocarbons emissions and economic growth (GDP per capita). Only in the case of methane was neither a linear nor a cubic relationship confirmed between the variables of interest. A quadratic relationship was confirmed suggesting that this is the only type of greenhouse gas where estimates indicate a relationship which follows an environmental Kuznets curve. Based on the calculated values of the Granger causality test we conclude that the volume of greenhouse gas emissions per capita in the present period and in any of the previous four periods has no effect on the amount of net FDI inflows as a percentage of GDP in the Slovak Republic.

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This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts in the full range of subjects that comprise Environmental Economics. Topics include economic causes and consequences of environmental changes; tax and regulatory policies that affect the environment; markets for pollution rights and related issues; government policies toward the environment; valuation of environmental resources, "green accounting" and intergovernmental cooperation in environmental policy.

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Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), Inc., Harvard Business School, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)
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Environmental Economics eJournal

DON FULLERTON
Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of Finance, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

LAWRENCE H. GOULDER
Shuzo Nishihara Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics, Stanford University - Department of Economics, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), University Fellow, Resources for the Future

WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS
Yale University - Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

PAUL R. PORTNEY
University of Arizona - Eller College of Management

ROBERT N. STAVINS
Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government, Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), University Fellow, Resources for the Future, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

TOM TIETENBERG
Mitchell Family Professor of Economics, Colby College - Department of Economics