ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS eJOURNAL
"Tariff Regulation with Energy Efficiency Goals"
IEFE - the Center for Research on Energy and Environmental Economics and Policy at Bocconi University Working Paper n. 65
LAURA ABRARDI, Politecnico di Torino
CARLO CAMBINI, Politecnico di Torino & EUI - Florence School of Regulation, European University Institute - Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS)
We study the optimal tariff structure that could induce a regulated utility to adopt energy efficiency activities given that it is privately informed about the effectiveness of its effort on demand reduction. The regulator should optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. If the Â…firm'Â’s energy efficiency activities have a high impact on demand reduction, the consumer should pay a high fiÂ…xed fee but a low per unit price, approximating the tariff structure to a decoupling policy, which strenghtens the fiÂ…rm'Â’s incentives to pursue energy conservation.
Instead, if the fiÂ…rm'Â’s effort to adopt energy efficiency actions is scarcely effective, the tariff is characterized by a low Â…fixed fee but a high price per unit of energy consumed, thus shifting the incentives for energy conservation on consumers. The optimal tariff structure also depends on the cost of the consumerÂ’'s effort (in case the consumer can also adopt energy efficiency measures) and on the degree of substitutability between the consumerÂ’'s and the fiÂ…rmÂ’'s efforts.
"Emitting Happiness? Using Model-Based Cluster Analysis to Group Countries by Wealth, Development, Carbon Emissions, and Happiness"
ADAM J. SULKOWSKI, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth - Charlton College of Business, University of Massachusetts School of Law at Dartmouth
D. STEVEN WHITE, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth - Charlton College of Business
This exploratory study uses model-based cluster analysis to group countries based on statistical similarities in terms of income, development, carbon emissions, and self-reported happiness. Several characteristics of the resulting clusters are noted. The least developed cluster, generating just 5% of the carbon emissions and earning on average 14% the income of the most developed cluster, experienced an average of 89% of the happiness of that of residents of the most developed cluster. The least developed cluster would have had an even higher level of average happiness had countries with unusually negative recent experiences such as Egypt and Iraq been excluded. Between the two clusters with the highest self-reported happiness, one emits just 57% the carbon dioxide emissions of the other. Average happiness is lowest in the two clusters with medium levels of income and development. These observations, among others, are very salient to deciding how to further happiness at the individual, firm, and societal levels while reducing emissions and other negative environmental impacts. The results should provoke further work in measuring, understanding, and fostering conditions conducive to well-being.
"Importing Energy, Exporting Regulation"
Fordham Law Review, Forthcoming
JAMES W. COLEMAN, University of Calgary - Faculty of Law, University of Calgary - Haskayne School of Business
This Article identifies and addresses a growing contradiction at the heart of United States energy policy. States are the traditional energy regulators and energy policy innovators â€” a role that has only grown more important without a settled federal climate policy. But federal regulators and market pressures are increasingly demanding integrated national and international energy markets. Deregulation, the rise of renewable energy, the shale revolution, and new sources of motor fuel precursors like crude and ethanol have all increased interstate energy trade.
The Article shows how integrated national energy markets are driving states to regulate imported fuel and electricity based on how it was produced elsewhere. That is, states that import energy are now exporting their energy regulations to cover production in their trading partners. But exported regulation has its own problems: it threatens to splinter interstate markets, undercutting the federal push for integrated and efficient energy markets; and it violates the Constitutionâ€™s dormant commerce clause. Indeed, these innovative exported regulations are now caught up in litigation across the country.
The Article argues that, to preserve statesâ€™ role, while also maintaining a national energy market, Congress should empower the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to immunize non-discriminatory state laws from commerce clause scrutiny if, and only if, they do not threaten to splinter interstate energy markets. The project considers how these federal regulators might assess state energy laws in three salient areas: regulation of imported electricity, regulation of imported fuel, and regulation of energy export and supply chains.
"Nondiscretionary Residential Water Use: The Impact of Habits and Waterâ€?Efficient Technologies"
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Vol. 58, Issue 2, pp. 185-204, 2014
MARIA ANGELES GARCIA-VALIÃ‘AS, University of Oviedo
WASANTHA ATHUKORALA, University of Peradeniya - Department of Economics and Statistics
CLEVO WILSON, Queensland University of Technology
BENNO TORGLER, Queensland University of Technology, CREMA, CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
ROBERT DON GIFFORD, Oklahoma City University - School of Law, U.S. Army JAG School, Department of Justice National Advocacy Center, University of Oklahoma - College of Law, University of Arkansas - School of Law
Several studies published in the last few decades have demonstrated a low priceâ€?elasticity for residential water use. In particular, it has been shown that there is a quantity of water demanded that remains constant regardless of prices and other economic factors. In this research, we characterise residential water demand based on a Stoneâ€?Geary utility function. This specification is not only theoryâ€?compatible but can also explicitly model a minimum level of consumption not dependent on prices or income. This is described as minimum threshold or nondiscretionary water use. Additionally, the Stoneâ€?Geary framework is used to model the subsistence level of water consumption that is dependent on the temporal evolution of consumer habits and stock of physical capital. The main aim of this study is to analyse the impact of waterâ€?saving habits and waterâ€?efficient technologies on residential water demand, while additionally focusing attention on nondiscretionary uses. This is informed by an empirical application using data from a survey conducted among residents of Brisbane City Council, Australia. The results will be especially useful in the design of water tariffs and other waterâ€?saving policies.
"ì¡°ê±´ë¶€ê°€ì¹˜ì¸¡ì •ë²•ì?„ ì?´ìš©í•œ ìž¬ë‚œë°©ì†¡ì?˜ ëŒ€êµë¯¼ íŽ¸ì?µ ì—°êµ¬ (Estimating the Benefits of the Broadcasting in Disaster Situations)"
International Telecommunications Policy Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2014
SANGKYU BYUN, Hoseo University
Korean Abstract: ê¸°í›„ë³€í™”ì™€ ì•ˆë³´ìƒ?ì?˜ ìœ„í—˜, ê¸°ìˆ ì?˜ ë³µìž¡ì„± ë“±ìœ¼ë¡œ ì?¸í•´ ìž¬ë‚œì?˜ ìœ„í—˜ì?´ ì¦?ëŒ€ë?˜ëŠ” ìƒ?í™©ì—?ë‹¤, ìµœê·¼ ì?¼ë³¸ì?˜ ëŒ€ì§€ì§„ìœ¼ë¡œ ì?¸í•´ ìž¬ë‚œë°©ì†¡ì?˜ íš¨ìš©ì?´ ë¶€ê°?ë?˜ì—ˆë‹¤. ìš°ë¦¬ë‚˜ë?¼ëŠ” ìž¬ë‚œ ì •ë³´ë¥¼ êµë¯¼ë“¤ì—?ê²Œ ì „ë‹¬í•˜ê¸° ìœ„í•œ ì‹œìŠ¤í…œì?„ êµ¬ì¶•í•˜ê³ ìžˆê³ , ì•žìœ¼ë¡œ ë¯¸ë””ì–´ í™˜ê²½ì?˜ ë³€í™”ë¥¼ ë°˜ì˜?í•˜ì—¬ ìž¬ë‚œì •ë³´ì?˜ ë?„ë‹¬ë¥ ì?„ ë†’ì?´ê¸° ìœ„í•œ ìˆ˜ë‹¨ìœ¼ë¡œ ë‰´ë¯¸ë””ì–´ì?˜ ì?´ìš©ë?„ ì œì•ˆë?˜ê³ ìžˆë‹¤. ê·¸ëŸ¬ë‚˜ ìš°ë¦¬ë‚˜ë?¼ì?˜ ìž¬ë‚œë°©ì†¡ ì²´ê³„ëŠ” ì£¼ìš” ì„ ì§„êµì—? ë¹„í•´ ìƒ?ëŒ€ì ?ìœ¼ë¡œ ë¯¸ë¹„í•œ ê²ƒìœ¼ë¡œ í?‰ê°€ë°›ê³ ìžˆìœ¼ë©°, ìž¬ì›?ì?˜ ë¶€ì¡±ì?´ ë°œì „ì—? ê±¸ë¦¼ë?Œì?´ ë?˜ê³ ìžˆë‹¤. ë³¸ ë…¼ë¬¸ì—?ì„œëŠ” êµë¯¼ê²½ì œ ì°¨ì›?ì—?ì„œ ìž¬ë‚œë°©ì†¡ì—? ëŒ€í•œ ìž¬ì›?íˆ¬ìž…ì?˜ íƒ€ë‹¹ì„±ì?„ í™•ë³´í•˜ê³ , í•©ë¦¬ì ?ì?¸ ê¸°ì¤€ì?„ ì œì‹œí•˜ê¸° ìœ„í•´ ìž¬ë‚œë°©ì†¡ì?´ êµë¯¼ë“¤ì—?ê²Œ ì œê³µí•˜ëŠ” íŽ¸ì?µì?„ ì •ëŸ‰ì ?ìœ¼ë¡œ ì¶”ì •í•˜ì˜€ë‹¤. ê·¸ëŸ°ë?° ê³µê³µìž¬ì?¸ ìž¬ë‚œë°©ì†¡ì?€ ë¬´ë£Œë¡œ ì œê³µë?˜ì–´ ì™”ìœ¼ë¯€ë¡œ, ì„¤ë¬¸ì¡°ì‚¬ë¥¼ í†µí•´ ìˆ˜ìš©ìž?ì?˜ ì§„ìˆ ì„ í˜¸ ìž?ë£Œë¥¼ ìˆ˜ì§‘í•˜ì˜€ë‹¤. ê·¸ë¦¬ê³ ì¡°ê±´ë¶€ê°€ì¹˜í?‰ê°€ë²•ì?„ ì?´ìš©í•˜ì—¬ ìž¬ë‚œë°©ì†¡ì—? ëŒ€í•œ ì§€ë¶ˆì?˜ì‚¬ì•¡ì?„ ì¶”ì •í•˜ì—¬ íŽ¸ì?µì?˜ ì§€í‘œë¡œ ì œì‹œí•˜ì˜€ë‹¤. ë§ˆì§€ë§‰ìœ¼ë¡œ ì?´ë¥¼ ê¸°ì¤€ìœ¼ë¡œ ë°©ì†¡ì‚¬ë“¤ì?´ íˆ¬ìž…í•˜ì§€ ëª»í•˜ëŠ” ê¸ˆì•¡ë§Œí?¼ ê³µì ? ìž¬ì›?ì?˜ íˆ¬ìž…ì?„ ì œì•ˆí•˜ì˜€ë‹¤.
English Abstract: The risk of the disasters is increased by the global climatic change, technological complexity and the unstable national security. Recently the incredible casualties and the fatal property damages from the earthquake and followed tsunami in Japan gave great impacts to the world. And the contributions of NHK made an impression as well. Though the government has prepared unexpected disasters, it is evaluated to be insufficient yet. The shortage of the financial resources is regarded as the key obstacle, especially for the broadcasting in the disaster situation. This study quantitatively estimated the benefit for the broadcasting in disaster in order to set the indicator for the adequate financial input from the national economy. Without the revealed preference data from the market for the public goods, the contingent valuation method was adopted to estimate the willingness to-pay using the stated reference data. With the increasing financial shortage in broadcasting market, the needs of raising public supports to the broadcasting in disaster is suggested in conclusion.
About this eJournal
This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts in the full range of subjects that comprise Environmental Economics. Topics include economic causes and consequences of environmental changes; tax and regulatory policies that affect the environment; markets for pollution rights and related issues; government policies toward the environment; valuation of environmental resources, "green accounting" and intergovernmental cooperation in environmental policy.
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Environmental Economics eJournal
Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of Finance, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)
LAWRENCE H. GOULDER
Shuzo Nishihara Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics, Stanford University - Department of Economics, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), University Fellow, Resources for the Future
WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS
Yale University - Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
PAUL R. PORTNEY
University of Arizona - Eller College of Management
ROBERT N. STAVINS
Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government, Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), University Fellow, Resources for the Future, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Mitchell Family Professor of Economics, Colby College - Department of Economics