ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS eJOURNAL

"Capital Transitioning: A Human Capital Strategy for Climate Innovation" Free Download
Forthcoming, Transnational Environmental Law
FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 809
FSU College of Law, Law, Business & Economics Paper No. 16-12

SHI-LING HSU, Florida State University - College of Law
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The 2015 Paris accord represents a promising change of course in international climate diplomacy, but left unanswered is the question of exactly how the world will meet the daunting technological challenges that lie ahead. This article proposes a global strategy to build up human capital oriented towards two bodies of knowledge: (1) alternative, non-fossil energy systems, and (2) a deeper understanding of climate systems that might be engineered to reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Simply committing funding to climate technology is insufficient; an international agreement with specific funding priorities is needed to implement a global policy that takes into account the nature of human capital and its role in bringing about the radical technological changes necessary to avert climate disaster.

Fossil fuel-related industries, which have globally led the political resistance to climate policies, have many assets that would be threatened by climate policy, but an important and overlooked asset is their stock of human capital: the many kinds of formal and informal learning that enable them to exploit fossil fuels. Human capital should be brought to the fore in an international climate agreement for three reasons: (1) the wrong kind of human capital – attached to fossil fuel-related methods of energy generation and consumption – has helped to create a political economy that is unfavorable for climate policy, (2) the right kind of human capital – broader and more fundamental understandings of energy systems and natural climate systems – can create a more favorable political economy for climate policy, and (3) the technological changes needed for both mitigation and geoengineering technologies are so profound that a human capital stock must be developed with a conscious focus on radical technological change that can be delivered quickly. While individual countries may pursue an enlightened human capital policy on their own, cooperation at the international level would maximize the scale economies of inventive effort. Moreover, an international agreement that includes a human capital component, from which all signatories benefit, could lubricate further international negotiations.

"Inadequate Environmental Governance: Failure to Protect Sensitive Environmental Resources in Mining" Free Download
Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy Research Paper No. 16-13

DODO JESUTHASON THAMPAPILLAI, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy
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This paper deals with sensitive environmental resources that warrant preservation. Inadequate legal safeguards for preserving such resources stem from the lack of recognition offered to the scientific realities of the natural environment. As a result, the long run implications for welfare losses are significant. Two Australian case studies in mining are considered. The first concerns the extraction of mineral deposits that are embedded in near pristine groundwater resource systems. The damages inflicted on the groundwater resource system can lead to hydrologic changes resulting in water scarcity. The second concerns mining operations that have implications for ground water and oceanic resource systems. In both cases, one observes inadequate of binding laws alongside improper economic analyses that have neglected the recognition of basic scientific realities. The improper economic analyses include the over-statement of the benefits of mining.

"Sustainability of Forest Park as Space Break: A Case Study of Arroceros Forest Park in Congested City of Manila" Free Download
OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 09, No. 05, pp. 63-82, 2016

ARLEN ANGELADA ANCHETA, University of Santo Tomas - Graduate School
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ZOSIMO OCAMPO MEMBREBE JR., University of Santo Tomas -Graduate School
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ALAIN GUILLEN SANTOS, University of Santo Tomas - Graduate School
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JOHN CHRISTIAN CABASAL VALEROSO, University of Santo Tomas - Graduate School
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CHARDAY VIZMANOS BATAC, University of Santo Tomas - Graduate School
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The study illustrates how urban forest parks as scarce resources in congested Manila could be sustainable to enhance the social values of a stressful urban life. Urban forest is considered as woodland located in or near urban area that entails transformed forest vegetation and provides green spaces to the communities (Zhang et al., 2007). It is widely regarded as a chain of trees where services are considered non-consumptive use value that includes clean air, serene and calmness environment, as well as sports and recreational activities (is this your idea or copied from somewhere else).

The Arroceros Forest Park (AFP) is one of the urban forests in congested Manila. It is a 2.2-hectare green space that contains different varieties of trees, plants and birds. Considered as the “last lung? of the city of Manila (Roces, 2015), it is located along the riverside of Pasig River, only few urbanites are aware of.

The objective of the study is to present the ecological values of AFP as space break to promote urban sustainability of Manila. This study is anchored on the concept of willingness to pay (WTP) that tries to determine its bequest value using total economic value as framework. According to literature, willingness to pay is being used to elicit the values put people on green spaces as Hadker et al. (1996) used a similar approach in the case of Borivli National Park in Bombay, which shares the same characteristics as that of AFP, in terms of location in an overly crowded metropolis, faced with the challenges of severe degradation and neglect.

The study used mixed methods combining key informant interviews and field observations as well as survey in gathering qualitative data and quantifiable values placed on the forest park.

Results show that the AFP is maintained by a non-government organization with limited funding and volunteers. Selected respondents are not fully aware on the role of the forest park. There is no city ordinance to protect the forest park, but there are environmentally aware institutions, student organizations, advocacy groups and civil societies that are willing to protect the forest park from deterioration. In conclusion, due to limited awareness on the ecological value of AFP, it became susceptible to vandalism, waste disposal and proliferation of informal settlers.

"Implications of Australia's Population Policy for Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets" Free Download
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, Volume 3, Issue 2, pages 249-265, May 2016
Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University

COREY J.A. BRADSHAW, University of Adelaide
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BARRY W. BROOK, University of Tasmania
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Australia's high per capita emissions rates makes it is a major emitter of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, but its low intrinsic growth rate means that future increases in population size will be dictated by net overseas immigration. We constructed matrix models and projected the population to 2100 under six different immigration scenarios. A constant 1 per cent proportional immigration scenario would result in 53 million people by 2100, producing 30.7 Gt CO2-e over that interval. Zero net immigration would achieve approximate population stability by mid-century and produce 24.1 Gt CO2-e. Achieving a 27 per cent reduction in annual emissions by 2030 would require a 1.5- to 2.0-fold reduction in per-capita emissions; an 80 per cent reduction by 2050 would require a 5.8- to 10.2-fold reduction. Australia's capacity to limit its future emissions will therefore depend primarily on a massive technological transformation of its energy sector, but business-as-usual immigration rates will make achieving meaningful mid-century targets more difficult.

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About this eJournal

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts in the full range of subjects that comprise Environmental Economics. Topics include economic causes and consequences of environmental changes; tax and regulatory policies that affect the environment; markets for pollution rights and related issues; government policies toward the environment; valuation of environmental resources, "green accounting" and intergovernmental cooperation in environmental policy.

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Environmental Economics eJournal

DON FULLERTON
Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - Department of Finance, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

LAWRENCE H. GOULDER
Shuzo Nishihara Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics, Stanford University - Department of Economics, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), University Fellow, Resources for the Future

WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS
Yale University - Department of Economics, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

PAUL R. PORTNEY
University of Arizona - Eller College of Management

ROBERT N. STAVINS
Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government, Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), University Fellow, Resources for the Future, Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

TOM TIETENBERG
Mitchell Family Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Colby College - Department of Economics