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Table of Contents

Social Networks as Dispositives of Neoliberal Governmentality

Julio Cesar Lemes de Castro, University of Sao Paulo (USP)

The Gender Aspects of Quality of English Language Learning in PhD Programme: Evidence from Russia

Mariia V. Rubtcova, St. Petersburg University of Cinema and Television
Oleg V. Pavenkov, St. Petersburg University of Cinema and Television
Vladimir Pavenkov, St. Petersburg University of Cinema and Television

Antidumping Laws Should Be Consigned to the History Books

Robert W. McGee, Fayetteville State University - Department of Accounting
Yeomin Yoon, Seton Hall University - W. Paul Stillman School of Business

Coffee, Market Economy and Informality in Late Colonial Goroka, Papua New Guinea

John D. Conroy, Australian National University (ANU) - Crawford School of Public Policy

Racial and Gender Discrimination in Transportation Network Companies

Yanbo Ge, University of Washington - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Christopher R. Knittel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Don MacKenzie, University of Washington - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Stephen Zoepf, Stanford University

Culture and Understanding in the Singapore War Crimes Trials (1946-1948): Interpreting Arguments of the Defence

W.L. Cheah, National University of Singapore (NUS) - Faculty of Law

The Wage Penalty of Dialect-Speaking

Jan C. van Ours, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE)
Yuxin Yao, Tilburg University - Department of Economics

Government R&D Investment Decision-Making in the Energy Sector: LCOE Foresight Model Reveals What Regression Analysis Cannot

Jungwoo Lee, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP)
Jae-Suk Yang, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

Of Temples and Territory: The ICJ's Preah Vihear Decision and Implications for Regional Dispute Resolution

Sally Tyler, University of the District of Columbia - David A. Clarke School of Law

The Strategic Potential of Community-Based Hybrid Models: The Case of Global Business Services in Africa

Stephan Manning, University of Massachusetts at Boston - College of Management
Chacko George Kannothra, University of Massachusetts Boston - College of Management
Nichole Wissman-Weber, University of Massachusetts Boston

Church Membership and Social Insurance: Evidence from the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927

Philipp Ager, University of Southern Denmark - Department of Business and Economics
Casper Worm Hansen, University of Copenhagen
Lars Lønstrup, University of Southern Denmark - Department of Business and Economics

Is Mori Ogai's The Wild Geese a Hybrid Literary Artifact? (森鴎外 ? ‘?’???イブリッド文学??ょ??)

Ian Akbar, Aftermath English


CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL

"Social Networks as Dispositives of Neoliberal Governmentality" Free Download
Journal of Media Critiques, Lincoln (UK), V. 2, N. 7, p. 85-102, 2016

JULIO CESAR LEMES DE CASTRO, University of Sao Paulo (USP)
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This article of theoretical reflection investigates the social networks that emerge in the context of Web 2.0, such as Facebook, as dispositives of neoliberal governmentality in the sense proposed by Foucault. From the standpoint of government of self, the design of social networks establishes a competition for attention that tends to favor the neoliberal culture of performance. In terms of social organization, the way in which users intertwine their connections is paralleled by the neoliberal paradigm of spontaneous market order. Furthermore, the use of personal information on these users, encompassing all their activities within the networks, in order to set up databases to attract advertisers reflects the neoliberal tendency of colonization of the different realms of existence by economic forces. However, the tensions that accompany neoliberal governmentality in social networks reveal its limitations, opening the possibility for these networks to also act as instruments of resistance to neoliberalism.

"The Gender Aspects of Quality of English Language Learning in PhD Programme: Evidence from Russia" Free Download
Postgraduate International Conference On Gender Studies (KPICGS) 16th to 17th November 2016 Penang, Malaysia

MARIIA V. RUBTCOVA, St. Petersburg University of Cinema and Television
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OLEG V. PAVENKOV, St. Petersburg University of Cinema and Television
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VLADIMIR PAVENKOV, St. Petersburg University of Cinema and Television
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The scope of research is to analyze some gender aspects of quality of English language learning in PhD programme in Russia. Participants of investigation are 100 non-native speakers of English who are PhD-students of the Saint-Petersburg universities. They are 50 females and 50 males. The age of respondents is 22-30 years. Three of these participants have studied other foreign languages in addition to English. Results show that PhD-students females learn English better than PhD-students males.

"Antidumping Laws Should Be Consigned to the History Books" Free Download

ROBERT W. MCGEE, Fayetteville State University - Department of Accounting
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YEOMIN YOON, Seton Hall University - W. Paul Stillman School of Business
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Antidumping laws have existed in some form since the early twentieth century. Ostensibly aimed at protecting domestic producers from unfair trade practices, they have frequently been used as weapons of protectionism even when dumping has not occurred. When this happens, some special interest group gains at the expense of the general public. Studies have found that antidumping laws result in a negative-sum game, since the losses exceed the gains, an outcome that violates utilitarian ethical principles. Antidumping laws also violate property and contract rights, since they prevent consenting adults from trading the property they have for the property they want.

This paper begins with a review of the theory and practice of antidumping laws, then proceeds to apply ethical principles to determine whether individuals who launch antidumping investigations are acting ethically and concludes that President Barack Obama “needs to be bold on trade? by starting out with correcting the popular view that “dumping? is bad and those who dump should be penalized. Frederic Bastiat pointed out the fallacy of this view in 1845, yet the view is not only still with many American politicians but widely believed to be true among U.S. domestic manufacturers.

President Obama should proclaim the following: In a free enterprise economic system, domestic producers have no inherent claim on the funds of consumers. The only ethical way of obtaining consumer funds is through voluntary trade. Using the force of government to obtain the funds (by prohibiting foreign suppliers from competing) puts domestic producers in the role of the aggressor, and in fact makes consumers the real victims. That is exactly what happens when a domestic producer appeals to the government to request an anti-dumping investigation against some foreign producer that is merely taking away business. Therefore, all anti-dumping laws and policies should be abrogated to promote freer trade. A bibliography containing links to more than 100 trade articles is also included.

"Coffee, Market Economy and Informality in Late Colonial Goroka, Papua New Guinea" Free Download
Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper No. 49

JOHN D. CONROY, Australian National University (ANU) - Crawford School of Public Policy
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Set in Goroka in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG) where coffee became the staple export crop after the Second World War, this paper explores how a variant of Keith Hart's informal economy emerged among indigenous Gorokans. Colonial administration was established in the region -- quickly recognized as an almost uniquely well-favoured ('lucky') place -- only during the 1930s. The attempt, bound to create friction with an Australian government intent on honouring its 'trusteeship' obligations, was made by a small group of settlers and local colonial officials to establish an 'anachronistic' white planter community. Most observers agree that, from the mid-1940s when Gorokans were introduced to monetized economic activity, and to the establishment soon after of 'European' commercial plantations and Gorokan coffee smallholdings, indigenous people moved with remarkable speed to accommodate themselves to market norms. Against this consensus it is argued here that, together with the phenomenon of widespread informality, the occurrence of hybridity in Gorokan market dealings suggests an alternative conclusion. This is that the triumph of capitalism by the time of Independence in 1975 may have been exaggerated, due to the operation of an uneasy trio of formality, informality and hybridity.

"Racial and Gender Discrimination in Transportation Network Companies" Fee Download
NBER Working Paper No. w22776

YANBO GE, University of Washington - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
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CHRISTOPHER R. KNITTEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
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DON MACKENZIE, University of Washington - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
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STEPHEN ZOEPF, Stanford University
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Passengers have faced a history of discrimination in transportation systems. Peer transportation companies such as Uber and Lyft present the opportunity to rectify long-standing discrimination or worsen it. We sent passengers in Seattle, WA and Boston, MA to hail nearly 1,500 rides on controlled routes and recorded key performance metrics. Results indicated a pattern of discrimination, which we observed in Seattle through longer waiting times for African American passengers—as much as a 35 percent increase. In Boston, we observed discrimination by Uber drivers via more frequent cancellations against passengers when they used African American-sounding names. Across all trips, the cancellation rate for African American sounding names was more than twice as frequent compared to white sounding names. Male passengers requesting a ride in low-density areas were more than three times as likely to have their trip canceled when they used a African American-sounding name than when they used a white-sounding name. We also find evidence that drivers took female passengers for longer, more expensive, rides in Boston. We observe that removing names from trip booking may alleviate the immediate problem but could introduce other pathways for unequal treatment of passengers.

Institutional subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents of developing countries may download this paper without additional charge at www.nber.org.

"Culture and Understanding in the Singapore War Crimes Trials (1946-1948): Interpreting Arguments of the Defence" Free Download
Forthcoming in International Journal of Law in Context (2016)

W.L. CHEAH, National University of Singapore (NUS) - Faculty of Law
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At least 60 million lay dead at the close of the Second World War (Doyle 2013, p.206). The end of hostilities and bloodshed brought not only relief but also weariness, insecurity, and a desire for justice. The Allied Powers scrambled to reoccupy territories, restore order, and implement war crimes trials. Apart from the Tokyo and Nuremberg Trials, the Allies would organise hundreds of national trials throughout Asia and Europe. In Asia, the British made Singapore the base of their war crimes trials programme. Altogether 131 trials were conducted by the British military at different locations across the island. These trials, which I will refer to as the Singapore Trials, brought together diverse participants — judges and prosecutors from the UK, India, and other Allied countries; accused persons from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan; defence counsel from Japan; and witnesses from all over Asia.

The majority of defendants in these trials did not deny their involvement in the war crimes concerned; instead, these defendants argued that their conduct was consistent with Japanese norms, beliefs and practices. How were these culturally influenced arguments of the defence interpreted by other trial participants in the Singapore Trials? This article explores the different interpretations given by trial participants to culturally influenced arguments of the defence. Many of these divergent interpretations stemmed from the cultural distance between trial participants. A number of judges did however modify their understandings after being exposed to similar defence arguments over several trials. Other Japanese participants took advantage of cultural differences and adjusted their arguments in anticipation of how they thought non-Japanese trial participants would react. In other words, while some participants were limited by cultural differences, others used such differences in a strategic manner. The Singapore Trials were thus the site of varying and contested interpretations.

Part 2 of this article positions the Singapore Trials against other multicultural trials and scholarly debates about cross-cultural interpretation issues at trial. I then introduce the reader to the historical and legal context of the Singapore Trials in Part 3. In Part 4, I analyse common culturally influenced trial arguments put forward by the defence and trial participants’ interpretations of defence arguments. I conclude by observing that though defendants were permitted to raise culturally influenced arguments in these trials, due to conflicting interpretations, this did not result in sustained discussion or improved understanding of the defendants’ motivations and conduct.

"The Wage Penalty of Dialect-Speaking" Free Download
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper 16-091/V

JAN C. VAN OURS, Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Erasmus School of Economics (ESE)
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YUXIN YAO, Tilburg University - Department of Economics
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Our paper studies the effects of dialect-speaking on job characteristics of Dutch workers, in particular on their hourly wages. The unconditional difference in median hourly wages between standard Dutch speakers and dialect speakers is about 10.6% for males and 6.7% for females. If we take into account differences in personal characteristics and province fixed effects male dialect speakers earn 4.1% less while for females this is 2.8%. Using the geographic distance to Amsterdam as an instrumental variable to dialect-speaking, we find that male workers who speak a dialect earn 11.6% less while for female workers this is 1.6%. Our main conclusion is that for male workers there is a significant wage penalty of dialect-speaking while for female workers there is no significant difference.

"Government R&D Investment Decision-Making in the Energy Sector: LCOE Foresight Model Reveals What Regression Analysis Cannot" Free Download

JUNGWOO LEE, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP)
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JAE-SUK YANG, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
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Governments that prioritize R&D investment, future R&D investment decision-making depends on performance-based budgeting. Governments evaluate outputs and outcomes of R&D programs regularly and budget for next year on the basis of program assessment. However, existing assessment methodology disregards long-term technology development where in sector such as the energy sector takes a long time for technologies to progress from R&D to commercialization. This paper is a comparative analysis of existing R&D assessment models and the new foresight model developed from the point of view of government. Probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) models are used to analyze the performance of projects built on past R&D investment. The foresight model, which is based on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), is discussed in comparison. Results of the regression analysis show that government investment in market expansion of renewable energy technologies is minimal in Korea. In contrast, the LCOE foresight model results show that renewable energy technologies are appropriate targets for government R&D investment. The foresight model should be utilized for government R&D decision-making in the energy sector because it brings to light hidden information, including learning rates and technology dynamics, which remains unaddressed when analyzing using existing R&D assessment models.

"Of Temples and Territory: The ICJ's Preah Vihear Decision and Implications for Regional Dispute Resolution" Free Download
University of the District of Columbia Law Review, Forthcoming

SALLY TYLER, University of the District of Columbia - David A. Clarke School of Law
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Encompassing questions of cultural heritage and border demarcation, the temple complex of Preah Vihear has grown as a symbol of identity and self-direction in both Thailand and Cambodia. A 2013 International Court of Justice interpretation (of a 1962 decision) set the stage for cooperative management of the site, but political struggles and an ASEAN dispute resolution framework which is more rhetorical than realistic have stalled the process. Greater economic cooperation between the nations, including creation of a maritime Joint Development Area in the Gulf of Thailand, may serve as a model for constructive engagement. The paper examines the conflict's historical background, analyzes the ICJ decision through legal and cultural lenses, explores the impact of nationalist political rhetoric on public opinion, and posits new approaches to conflict management and bi-lateral engagement.

"The Strategic Potential of Community-Based Hybrid Models: The Case of Global Business Services in Africa" Free Download
Global Strategy Journal, 2017, Forthcoming.

STEPHAN MANNING, University of Massachusetts at Boston - College of Management
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CHACKO GEORGE KANNOTHRA, University of Massachusetts Boston - College of Management
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NICHOLE WISSMAN-WEBER, University of Massachusetts Boston
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As a latecomer economy, Africa faces persistent difficulties with catching up in global markets. This study examines the strategic potential of community-based hybrid models, which balance market profitability with social impact in local communities. Focusing on the global business services industry in Kenya and South Africa, and the practice of ‘impact sourcing’ – hiring and training of disadvantaged staff servicing business clients – we find that while regular providers struggle to compete with global peers, hybrid model adopters manage to access underutilized labor pools through community organizations, and target less competitive niche client markets. We further identify key industry, institutional and firm-level factors that affect hybrid model adoption. Findings have important implications for research on catch-processes in latecomer economies, hybrid models and global business services.

"Church Membership and Social Insurance: Evidence from the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927" Free Download
Discussion Papers on Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark, 7/2016

PHILIPP AGER, University of Southern Denmark - Department of Business and Economics
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CASPER WORM HANSEN, University of Copenhagen
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LARS LØNSTRUP, University of Southern Denmark - Department of Business and Economics
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Religious communities are key providers of social insurance. This paper focuses on the devastating impact of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 to investigate how an increase in the demand for social insurance affects church membership. We find a significant increase in church membership in flooded counties. This effect is stronger in counties with severe economic losses and where access to credit was limited. We also document that fundamental denominations gained more members in flooded counties, which is consistent with the theory of club goods emphasizing the efficient provision of mutual insurance in stricter religious communities.

"Is Mori Ogai's The Wild Geese a Hybrid Literary Artifact? (森鴎外 ? ‘?’???イブリッド文学??ょ??)" Free Download

IAN AKBAR, Aftermath English
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English Abstract: The Meiji period from 1868 to 1912, in Japan, was a time of rapid adoption of Western/European styles, product influences, social practices and physical changes in an attempt to be more modern. Accordingly, Mori Ogai’s The Wild Geese is representative of that particular historical period; the transition from the Tokugawa period (1603 – 1867) to the Meiji period (1868 – 1912), and therefore by definition can be considered an artifact of that period insofar as it consistently presents examples of this particular historical period. In addition, in terms of hybridity, which is defined as something heterogeneous in origin or composition (Merriam-Webster Online 2004), this paper also illustrates that The Wild Geese possesses elements of both the Japanese (shosetsu) and the Western novel, of the time, and, therefore, can properly be referred to as a hybrid literary artifact.

Japanese Abstract: 日本??1868年?ら1912年?明治時代??より?代的??る西洋/ヨーロッパスタイル?製??影響?社会的慣行や物?的変化?急速?普???り???。 ??????森鴎外?「??????れを特定???る歴?的?時代?代表的?も???。徳?時代(18671603)?ら明治時代(1868年?ら1912年)??移行???れ?一貫?????特定?歴?的?期間?例を示??よ???定義?よ???????時代?骨董??考?る???ら?????。 ???起????組?物??一?も????定義?れ??る雑種(メリアム・ウェブスターオンライン2004年)????論文?????「????日本??説?西洋??説?両方??素を?所有???る??を示?????。よ????切??イブリッド文学アー?ファクト?呼???????る???。

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About this eJournal

Supported by: American Anthropological Association (AAA)

This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of cultural anthropological studies. Please note that several cultural anthropology topics are indexed in separate eJournals, including applied and practicing anthropology, urban and transnational anthropology, medical anthropology, environmental anthropology, psychological anthropology, anthropology of agriculture and nutrition, anthropology of education, anthropology of religion, and culture area studies. The topics in this eJournal include: The History of Cultural Anthropology; Methods & Ethics in Cultural Anthropology; History & Ethnohistory; Race, Ethnicity, & Indigenous People; Visual Anthropology, Media Studies, & Performance; Economic Anthropology; Political Anthropology & Legal Anthropology; Kinship, Gender, the Body & Sexuality; Violence: War, Crime & Peace; Human Borders: Animals, Science & Technology, & Material Culture; Theory; Negative Results - Cultural Anthropology. Please note that several cultural anthropology topics are indexed in separate eJournals, including applied and practicing anthropology, urban and transnational anthropology, medical anthropology, environmental anthropology, psychological anthropology, anthropology of agriculture and nutrition, anthropology of education, anthropology of religion, political anthropology, legal anthropology and culture area studies.

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Email: lamphere@unm.edu

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