"Queer Encounters between Iron Man and Chinese Boys' Love Fandom" Free Download
Transformative Works and Cultures, No. 17, 2014, DOI: org/10.3983/twc.2014.0561

JOHN WEI, University of Auckland, University of Melbourne

Superhero fan fiction is increasingly popular in the Chinese boys' love (BL) community. An exploration of the fan fic Gangtiexia: Zhongdu Yilai (Iron Man: Overly attached) investigates how the Hollywood cultural icon Iron Man/Tony Stark is reimagined in Chinese BL culture and to what degree this kind of rendition both echoes and extends as well as challenges and deviates from our current insights into BL fandoms. Through the lenses of queerness and technological human transformation, I explore the fresh contribution of Iron Man fan fiction to both local BL cultures and global superhero fandoms.

"Two Family Trees - One Real, One Paper: The Legacy of the 'Paper Family' & the Immigration Debate" 

JULIE LIM, CUNY School of Law

For almost a century, significant numbers of Chinese immigrants avoided the race-based restrictions of the Chinese Exclusion Act and later ethnic quotas by becoming “paper sons� and “paper families.� Becoming a “paper son� or “paper daughter� meant claiming to be the "children" of Chinese-American U.S. citizens with inaccurate or fabricated documentation. Sometimes this consisted of simply claiming that a grandfather was a father. Other cases involved creating a fictitious family with names of a particular village in China.

This article will discuss the development of the “paper son� in response to the discriminatory restrictions of the Chinese Exclusion Act and the National Origins Quota Act of 1924, which excluded more immigrants based on ethnicity, until 1965 when the immigration laws moved away from the quota system. Such racial restrictions and the intense desire of Chinese immigrants to come to the United States – sometimes to reunite separated families - led to the creation of a complex system to defy the immigration laws. The legacy of the “paper son� has greatly impacted Chinese immigrants and their descendants and also provides larger lessons for the current debate over immigration laws and practices that continue to create incentives for immigrants to evade restrictions both legally and illegally.


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Advisory Board

Ethnic Studies eJournal

Joan Negley Kelleher Centennial Professor in Rhetoric and Composition; Director, Humanities Institute, University of Texas at Austin - Department of English

Jane and Roland Blumberg Centennial Professor in English; University Distinguished Teaching Professor; Chair, University of Texas at Austin - Department of English

Dorothy Cruickshank Backstrand Chair in Gender and Women's Studies, Claremont Colleges - Department of Gender and Women's Studies

Senior Lecturer, Royal Holloway, University of London

Professor of English, University College London - Department of English Language and Literature

Judith Rodin Professor of English, University of Pennsylvania - Department of English