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Table of Contents

Marshmallows and Votes: Childhood Non-Cognitive Skill Development and Adult Political Participation

John Holbein, Duke University

Leader-Member Exchange and Employee Outcomes: The Effects of Taking Charge and Psychological Empowerment

Tae-Yeol Kim, China Europe International Business School (CEIBS)
Zhiqiang Liu, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - School of Management
James M. Diefendorff, University of Akron


PHILOSOPHY OF MIND eJOURNAL

"Marshmallows and Votes: Childhood Non-Cognitive Skill Development and Adult Political Participation" Free Download

JOHN HOLBEIN, Duke University
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Recent research has shown that the “non-cognitive� skills children develop — such as the ability to self regulate or to interact in social settings — are critically important for success in school and in the labor force. Do non-cognitive skills also promote active participation in politics? In this paper I use multiple data sources to show that children who develop non-cognitive skills are more likely to participate in politics in adulthood than those who do not. Further, I explore whether non-cognitive skills are malleable and whether exogenous improvements in these increase participation downstream. To do so I use a unique 20-year field experiment. Matching participants to voter files, I show that this early-childhood intervention increased participants’ adult turnout substantially: by 11-14 percentage points. These results suggest a refocusing of political socialization models on early childhood. During this critical early period, children develop the non-cognitive skills that encourage political participation later in life.

"Leader-Member Exchange and Employee Outcomes: The Effects of Taking Charge and Psychological Empowerment" Free Download

TAE-YEOL KIM, China Europe International Business School (CEIBS)
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ZHIQIANG LIU, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - School of Management
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JAMES M. DIEFENDORFF, University of Akron
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We theorized and tested the mechanisms by which leader-member exchange (LMX) quality is associated with job performance. The results obtained using 212 employee-supervisor pairs from eight Chinese companies indicated that LMX quality had an indirect and positive relationship with taking charge via psychological empowerment and had an indirect and positive relationship with job performance via taking charge. In addition, organizational tenure significantly moderated the relationship between taking charge and job performance, such that the positive effect of taking charge on job performance became weaker as organizational tenure increased. Furthermore, organizational tenure significantly moderated the indirect positive relationship between LMX quality and job performance via taking charge; the indirect effect became weaker as organizational tenure increased. These results suggest that organizations should encourage managers to develop high-quality LMX with their subordinates, which may make them feel more empowered and engage in more taking charge, and result in better job performance.

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Advisory Board

Philosophy of Mind eJournal

JULIA ELIZABETH ANNAS
Regents Professor of Philosophy, University of Arizona

DAVID CHALMERS
Professor of Philosophy, ARC Federation Fellow, Director - Center for Consciousness, Australian National University

MAUDEMARIE CLARK
Carleton Professor of Philosophy, Colgate University

CHRISTINE M. KORSGAARD
Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University

ALAN SIMMONS
Commonwealth Professor of Philosophy and Professor of Law, University of Virginia

ELLIOTT R. SOBER
Hans Reichenbach Professor of Philosophy and William F. Vilas Research Professor, University of Wisconsin

ERNEST SOSA
Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University

BRIAN WEATHERSON
Associate Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University