Stephen Gardbaum

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

MacArthur Foundation Professor of International Justice & Human Rights

385 Charles E. Young Dr. East

Room 1242

Los Angeles, CA 90095-1476

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

34

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17,257

SSRN CITATIONS
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Top 14,859

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33

CROSSREF CITATIONS

45

Scholarly Papers (34)

1.

The New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism

49 American Journal of Comparative Law 707 (2001)
Number of pages: 54 Posted: 15 Mar 2002 Last Revised: 16 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 2,272 (7,746)
Citation 1

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2.

Human Rights and International Constitutionalism

RULING THE WORLD? CONSTITUTIONALISM, INTERNATIONAL LAW AND GLOBAL GOVERNMENT, Jeff Dunoff and Joel Trachtman, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2009, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 08-01
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 29 Jan 2008 Last Revised: 25 Sep 2009
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 1,311 (18,551)
Citation 3

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international human rights, international constitutionalism, international constitutional law, bills of rights, constitutional law, human rights treaties

3.

The 'Horizontal Effect' of Constitutional Rights

Michigan Law Review, Vol. 102, pp. 388-459, 2003, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 03-14
Number of pages: 73 Posted: 26 Aug 2003 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 1,281 (19,179)
Citation 3

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Constitutional rights, individual rights, race and sex discrimination, regulation of speech

4.

Limiting Constitutional Rights

UCLA Law Review, Vol. 54, 2007
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 15 Mar 2007 Last Revised: 01 Sep 2015
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 1,209 (20,943)

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Constitutional rights, judicial review, comparative constitutional law, limits on rights, legislative override, balancing, proportionality

5.

Reassessing the New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism

International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 10-04
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 30 Mar 2010 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 918 (31,255)
Citation 5

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Constitutionalism, weak-form judicial review, judicial review, bills of rights, parliamentary bills of rights, legislative override

6.

The Indian Constitution and Horizontal Effect

Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution, Sujit Choudhry, Madhav Khosla and Pratap Mehta eds., Oxford University Press, 2016, Forthcoming, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 15-13
Number of pages: 23 Posted: 02 May 2015 Last Revised: 06 May 2015
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 842 (35,230)
Citation 1

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India, horizontal effect, private actors, public-private distinction, fundamental rights, non-state actors

Human Rights as International Constitutional Rights

European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2008, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 08-28
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 07 Sep 2008 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 726 (42,505)

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human rights, international bill of rights, international constitutionalism, international constitutional law, bills of rights

Human Rights as International Constitutional Rights

European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, Issue 4, pp. 749-768, 2008
Posted: 16 Oct 2008
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

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8.

What Is Judicial Supremacy?

in Comparative Constitutional Theory (Gary Jacobsohn & Miguel Schor eds., Elgar Publishing, 2018), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 16-39
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 08 Sep 2016 Last Revised: 09 Mar 2018
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 680 (47,113)

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judicial supremacy, departmentalism, constitutional interpretation, same-sex marriage, political empowerment, weak-form judicial review, comparative constitutional theory

9.

The Comparative Structure and Scope of Constitutional Rights

RESEARCH HANDBOOK IN COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, Rosalind Dixon, Tom Ginsburg, eds., 2011 , UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 10-17
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 09 Aug 2010 Last Revised: 03 Sep 2010
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 666 (48,400)
Citation 1

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comparative constitutional law, constitutional rights, limits on rights, horizontal effect, social and economic rights, postive rights

10.

A Democratic Defense of Constitutional Balancing

Law & Ethics of Human Rights, Vol. 4, 2010, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 09-09
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 19 Feb 2009 Last Revised: 09 Sep 2009
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 544 (62,670)

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balancing, proportionality, constitutional rights, comparative constitutional law

11.

Separation of Powers and the Growth of Judicial Review in Established Democracies (Or Why Has the Model of Legislative Supremacy Mostly Been Withdrawn from Sale?)

62(3) American Journal of Comparative Law 613 (2014), UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 14-06
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 01 May 2014 Last Revised: 25 Nov 2014
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 503 (69,056)

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judicial review, separation of powers, parliamentary democracies, legislative supremacy, political constitutionalism, political parties, party system, bicameralism

12.

The Place of Constitutional Law in the Legal System

OXFORD HANDBOOK OF COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, Michel Rosenfeld and András Sajó, eds., Oxford University Press, 2012 , UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 12-07
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 16 Mar 2012 Last Revised: 26 Mar 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 496 (70,308)
Citation 1

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constitutional law, comparative constitutional law, constitutionalism, common law constitutionalism, legal constitutionalism, comparative law

13.

Are Strong Constitutional Courts Always a Good Thing for New Democracies?

53 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 285 (2015), UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 15-02
Number of pages: 36 Posted: 21 Jan 2015 Last Revised: 09 Apr 2015
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 456 (77,889)
Citation 3

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new democracies, independence of the judiciary, constitutional courts, democratic transitions, strong-form judicial review

14.

Pushing the Boundaries: Judicial Review of Legislative Procedures in South Africa

Constitutional Court Review, Vol. 9, No. 1 (2019)., UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-08
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 20 Feb 2019 Last Revised: 07 Jan 2020
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 430 (83,455)

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legislative process, judicial review, lammaking procedure, South Africa, political process theory, Ely, representation reinforcement, parliamentary government

15.

Political Parties, Voting Systems, and the Separation of Powers

65(2) American Journal of Comparative Law 229 (2017), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 16-23
Number of pages: 49 Posted: 04 May 2016 Last Revised: 07 Nov 2017
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 428 (83,918)
Citation 1

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separation of powers, political parties, party system, voting systems, proportional representation, presidentialism, parliamentarism, semi-presidentialism

16.

How Do and Should We Compare Constitutional Law?

Comparing Comparative Law, Samantha Besson, Lukas Heckendorn & Samuel Jube eds. (Swiss Institute of Comparative Law, 2016) , UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 16-15
Number of pages: 24 Posted: 07 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 05 Apr 2017
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 403 (89,989)
Citation 2

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comparative constitutional law, methodology, aims, objects, constitutional politics, comparative law, political science

17.

Proportionality and Democratic Constitutionalism

Proportionality and the Rule of Law: Rights, Justification, Reasoning, Grant Huscroft, Bradley Miller, Grégoire Webber, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2014 , UCLA School of Law Research Paper 13-32
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 02 Oct 2013 Last Revised: 16 Oct 2013
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 388 (94,003)

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proportionality, balancing, human rights, constitutional rights, democratic constitutionalism, judicial review, comparative constitutional law

18.

Revolutionary Constitutionalism

15(1) International Journal of Constitutional Law 173 (2017).
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 28 Aug 2015 Last Revised: 05 Apr 2017
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 383 (95,460)

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revolutionary constitutionalism, constitutional revolution, constitutionalism, American Revolution, Arab Spring, constitution-making

19.

Positive and Horizontal Rights: Proportionality's Next Frontier or a Bridge Too Far?

Proportionality: New Frontiers, New Challenges, Vicki Jackson and Mark Tushnet eds., Cambridge University Press (2017), UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 16-04
Number of pages: 35 Posted: 04 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2017
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 354 (104,413)
Citation 1

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proportionality, balancing, positive rights, socio-economic rights, horizontal effect, protective duties

20.

What Makes for More or Less Powerful Constitutional Courts?

Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2018, UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 17-37
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 10 Oct 2017 Last Revised: 01 Dec 2018
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 331 (112,509)
Citation 4

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constitutional courts, judicial power, legal culture, political context, judicial appointments, constitutional amendments, judicial autonomy, Indian Supreme Court, Japanese Supreme Court

21.

The Myth and the Reality of American Constitutional Exceptionalism

Michigan Law Review, Vol. 107, No. 3, 2008, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 08-33
Number of pages: 77 Posted: 22 Oct 2008 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 330 (112,849)
Citation 1

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American exceptionalism, comparative constitutional rights, structure of constitutional rights, constitutional rights jurisprudence, social and economic rights, horizontal effect, proportionality, constitutional balancing

22.

The Counter-Playbook: Resisting the Populist Assault on Separation of Powers

Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 59, No. 1 (2020), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-51
Number of pages: 65 Posted: 13 Nov 2019 Last Revised: 12 Feb 2021
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 304 (123,237)
Citation 2

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separation of power, populism, constitutional democracy, constitutional design

23.

The Case for the New Commonwealth Model of Constitutionalism

14 German Law Journal 2229 (2013)
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 26 Apr 2013 Last Revised: 21 Nov 2017
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 299 (125,485)
Citation 1

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constitutionalism, comparative constitutional law, constitutional law, judicial review, Commonwealth, bills of rights, weak-form judicial review

24.

Populism and Institutional Design: Methods of Selecting Candidates for Chief Executive

93 New York University Law Review 647 (2018), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 17-44, NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 17-46
Number of pages: 63 Posted: 07 Nov 2017 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2018
Stephen Gardbaum and Richard H. Pildes
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law and New York University School of Law
Downloads 281 (133,887)
Citation 3

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political parties, democracy, nominations, primaries, party leaders

25.
Downloads 268 (140,599)

Where the (State) Action is

International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 4, No. 4, October 2006, University of California, Los Angeles - School of Law Research Paper No. 06-36
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 08 Sep 2006 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 268 (139,948)

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state action, horizontal effect, private actors and constitutional law, constitutional structure, constitutional rights

Where the (State) Action is

International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 4, Issue 4, pp. 760-779, 2006
Posted: 29 Feb 2008
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

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26.

Comparative Political Process Theory

18 International Journal of Constitutional Law 1429 (2020), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 20-11
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 10 May 2020 Last Revised: 03 May 2021
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 242 (155,547)
Citation 1

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political process theory, John Hart Ely, representative democracy, democratic process, process-substance distinction, populism, democratic erosion

27.

State and Comparative Constitutional Law Perspectives on a Possible Post-Roe World

St. Louis University Law Journal, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2007, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 07-21
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 14 Jun 2007 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 185 (199,922)

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abortion, federalism, constitutional law, comparative constitutional law, state constitutional law

28.

Congress's Power to Preempt the States

Pepperdine Law Review (Symposium Issue on Federal Preemption of State Tort Law), Vol.33, No. 1, December 2005, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 05-33
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 13 Oct 2005 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2012
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 180 (204,718)
Citation 1

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preemption, constitutional law, federalism, torts, state power

29.

The Breadth Versus the Depth of Congress's Commerce Power

University of California, Los Angeles - School of Law Research Paper No. 06-40, THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF FEDERAL PREEMPTION, Richard Epstein & Michael Greve, eds., Forthcoming
Number of pages: 37 Posted: 12 Oct 2006
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 129 (268,960)

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Congress's Commerce Power, New Deal era, Lochner Court, federal laws, state authority

30.

Uncharismatic Revolutionary Constitutionalism

in Revolutionary Constitutionalism: Law, Legitimacy, Power (Richard Albert ed., Hart Publishing, 2020), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 19-28
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 05 Sep 2019 Last Revised: 23 Feb 2020
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 115 (292,440)

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revolutionary constitutionalism, revolution, charisma, legitimacy crisis, Mexican Revolution, judicial supremacy

31.

Due Process of Lawmaking Revisited

21 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1 (2018), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 18-12
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 27 Mar 2018 Last Revised: 06 Dec 2018
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 115 (292,440)

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due process, legislative procedures, tax law, corruption, campaign finance

32.

The Structure of a Free Speech Right

The Oxford Handbook on Freedom of Speech (Stone & Schauer, eds., Forthcoming), UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 20-32
Number of pages: 27 Posted: 20 Oct 2020
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 94 (334,753)

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free speech, legal personhood, positive duties, horizontal effect, proportionality

33.

Comparing Constitutional Bad Faith

Harvard Law Review Forum, Vol. 129, p.158, 2016, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 16-07
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 14 Feb 2016 Last Revised: 30 Mar 2016
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 89 (346,447)

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constitutional law, good faith, private law, international law, judicial underenforcement, constitutional discourse

34.

How Successful and Distinctive is the Human Rights Act? An Expatriate Comparatist's Assessment

The Modern Law Review, Vol. 74, Issue 2, pp. 195-215, 2011
Number of pages: 21 Posted: 09 Mar 2011
Stephen Gardbaum
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law
Downloads 5 (740,238)
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