W. Nicholson Price II

University of Michigan Law School

Professor of Law

625 South State Street

Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1215

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

40

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Top 3,271

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20,432

SSRN CITATIONS
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SSRN RANKINGS

Top 26,306

in Total Papers Citations

34

CROSSREF CITATIONS

11

Scholarly Papers (40)

1.

Artificial Intelligence in Health Care: Applications and Legal Issues

14 SciTech Lawyer 10 (2017), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 599
Number of pages: 7 Posted: 03 Apr 2018 Last Revised: 24 Apr 2018
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 3,694 (5,777)
Citation 3

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2.

Humans in the Loop

76 Vanderbilt Law Review 429 (2023), U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 22-10, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 22-011
Number of pages: 82 Posted: 27 Mar 2022 Last Revised: 05 Apr 2023
Rebecca Crootof, Margot E. Kaminski and W. Nicholson Price II
University of Richmond School of LawYale University - Yale Information Society Project, University of Colorado Law SchoolYale University - Yale Information Society Project and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 1,985 (15,513)
Citation 9

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AI, regulation, hybrid systems, MABA-MABA, humans in the loop, artificial intelligence

3.

Medical Malpractice and Black-Box Medicine

I. Glenn Cohen et al., eds., Big Data, Health Law, and Bioethics (Cambridge University Press, 2018), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 536
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 04 Feb 2017 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2018
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 1,226 (32,375)
Citation 1

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black-box medicine, precision medicine, medical malpractice, medical algorithms

4.

Medical AI and Contextual Bias

33 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 66 (2019), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 632
Number of pages: 52 Posted: 01 Apr 2019 Last Revised: 20 Mar 2020
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 1,031 (41,406)
Citation 1

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AI, artificial intelligence, law and medicine, innovation, bias

5.

Patent Trolling — Why Bio & Pharmaceuticals Are at Risk

17 Stan. Tech. L. Rev. 773, 2014, UC Hastings Research Paper No. 93
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 15 Feb 2014 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2016
Robin Feldman and W. Nicholson Price II
UC Law, San Francisco and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 1,028 (41,591)
Citation 5

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nonpracticing entities, patent trolls, patent assertion entities, pharmaceuticals, patents, biotechnology

6.

Black-Box Medicine

28 Harv. J.L. & Tech. 419 (2015)
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 23 Sep 2014 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2016
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 969 (45,188)
Citation 2

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personalized medicine, big data, incentives, patents

7.

Artificial Intelligence in the Medical System: Four Roles for Potential Transformation

21 Yale J.L. & Tech. Spec. Iss. 122 (2019), 18 Yale J. Health Pol'y L. & Ethics Spec. Iss. 122 (2019), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 631
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 18 Mar 2019 Last Revised: 07 Jan 2020
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 829 (55,982)

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Artificial Intelligence, AI, Medicine, Health Law, FDA Law

8.

Liability for Use of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine

W. Nicholson Price II, Sara Gerke, & I. Glenn Cohen, Liability for Use of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Research Handbook on Health, AI and the Law, Barry Solaiman & I. Glenn Cohen, eds. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. (2023 Forthcoming), Harvard Public Law Working Paper No. 22-16, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 22-020, U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 22-020
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 27 May 2022 Last Revised: 04 Oct 2022
W. Nicholson Price II, Sara Gerke and I. Glenn Cohen
University of Michigan Law School, Pennsylvania State University, Dickinson Law and Harvard Law School
Downloads 765 (62,422)
Citation 3

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AI, liability, healthcare, malpractice, artificial intelligence

9.

New Innovation Models in Medical AI

99 Wash. U. L. Rev. 1121 (2022), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 21-009
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 20 Feb 2021 Last Revised: 06 Apr 2022
W. Nicholson Price II, Rachel Sachs and Rebecca S. Eisenberg
University of Michigan Law School, Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 687 (71,760)
Citation 3

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artificial intelligence, user innovation, intellectual property, FDA law, medical AI

10.

Regulating Black-Box Medicine

116 Mich. L. Rev. 421 (2017)
Number of pages: 55 Posted: 22 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 13 May 2018
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 628 (80,340)
Citation 1

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black-box medicine, algorithms, regulation, innovation

11.

Big Data, Patents, and the Future of Medicine

37 Cardozo L. Rev. 1401 (2016)
Number of pages: 53 Posted: 14 Sep 2015 Last Revised: 18 Jul 2023
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 598 (85,447)
Citation 1

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big data, patents, medicine, intellectual property, algorithms

12.

Manufacturing Barriers to Biologics Competition and Innovation

101 Iowa L. Rev. 1023 (2016), Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2015-20, Duke I&E Research Paper No. 15-2
Number of pages: 41 Posted: 16 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 19 Jul 2021
W. Nicholson Price II and Arti K. Rai
University of Michigan Law School and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 588 (87,316)

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Innovation, Trade Secrets, Intellectual Property, Biologics, Biosimilars

13.

Making Do in Making Drugs: Innovation Policy and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

55 B.C. L. Rev. 491 (2014)
Number of pages: 72 Posted: 18 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2016
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 534 (98,565)
Citation 4

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pharmaceutical, drugs, manufacturing, innovation policy, innovation

14.

Acknowledgements as a Window into Legal Academia

98 Wash. U. L. Rev. 307 (2020), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 668, U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 20-017
Number of pages: 45 Posted: 06 Apr 2020 Last Revised: 20 Jul 2021
W. Nicholson Price II and Jonathan Tietz
University of Michigan Law School and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 506 (105,256)

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empirical legal studies, star footnote, legal scholarship

15.

Hierarchy, Race, and Gender in Legal Scholarly Networks

75 Stan. L. Rev. 71 (2023), U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 22-003, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 22-003
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 26 Jan 2022 Last Revised: 06 Feb 2023
Keerthana Nunna, W. Nicholson Price II and Jonathan Tietz
University of Michigan Law School - Alumni, University of Michigan Law School and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 458 (118,511)
Citation 2

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legal scholarship, network analysis, scholarly networks, knowledge co-production, race, gender

16.

Cryptic Patent Reform Through the Inflation Reduction Act

Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, Forthcoming, Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2023-25, U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 23-021, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 23-021
Number of pages: 46 Posted: 11 Apr 2023 Last Revised: 06 Dec 2023
Arti K. Rai, Rachel Sachs and W. Nicholson Price II
Duke University School of Law, Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 456 (119,147)

Abstract:

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patents, drug pricing

17.

Problematic Interactions between AI and Health Privacy

2021 Utah L. Rev. 925, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 21-014
Number of pages: 13 Posted: 29 Mar 2021 Last Revised: 01 Dec 2021
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 451 (120,709)

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artificial intelligence, health privacy, hipaa,

18.

Privacy and Accountability in Black-Box Medicine

23 Mich. Telecomm. & Tech. L. Rev. 1 (2016)
Number of pages: 43 Posted: 04 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2018
Roger Allan Ford and W. Nicholson Price II
University of New Hampshire Franklin Pierce School of Law and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 428 (128,408)
Citation 2

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machine learning, privacy, black-box medicine, predictive analytics, law and medicine

19.

Unblocked Future: Why Gene Patents Won’t Hinder Whole-Genome Sequencing and Personalized Medicine

33 Cardozo L. Rev. 1601 (2012)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 23 Aug 2011 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2016
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 425 (129,442)
Citation 1

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gene patents, whole-genome sequencing, personalized medicine

20.

Grants

34 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1 (2019), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 600
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 09 May 2018 Last Revised: 23 Oct 2019
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 296 (192,330)
Citation 1

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grants, innovation policy, intellectual property, NIH

21.

Promoting Healthcare Innovation on the Demand Side

4 J.L. & Biosciences 3 (2017), U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 16-008, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 503
Number of pages: 47 Posted: 19 Apr 2016 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2018
Rebecca S. Eisenberg and W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School and University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 277 (205,805)
Citation 1

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Food Law, Drug Law, Health Law, Health Policy, Intellectual Property Law

22.

Clearing Opacity through Machine Learning

106 Iowa L. Rev. 775 (2021), Duke Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Series No. 2020-13, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 663, U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 20-016
Number of pages: 38 Posted: 08 Mar 2020 Last Revised: 12 Feb 2021
W. Nicholson Price II and Arti K. Rai
University of Michigan Law School and Duke University School of Law
Downloads 269 (212,021)
Citation 6

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artificial intelligence, secrecy, opacity, machine learning, basic research, innovation policy, trade secrets

23.

Rethinking Innovation at FDA

Boston University Law Review, Forthcoming, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 23-020
Number of pages: 70 Posted: 14 Mar 2023 Last Revised: 06 Dec 2023
Rachel Sachs, W. Nicholson Price II and Patricia J. Zettler
Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law, University of Michigan Law School and Ohio State University (OSU) - Michael E. Moritz College of Law
Downloads 239 (238,295)

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Innovation, FDA, pharmaceutical policy

24.

The Cost of Novelty

120 Colum. L. Rev. 769 (2020), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 633, U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 19-004
Number of pages: 66 Posted: 02 Apr 2019 Last Revised: 04 May 2020
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 231 (246,195)

Abstract:

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innovation, patents, novelty, biomedical innovation

25.

Regulating Secrecy

91 Wash. L. Rev. 1769 (2016)
Number of pages: 44 Posted: 16 Oct 2015 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2018
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 219 (258,980)

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trade secrecy, regulation, patents, biosimilars, biologics, pharmaceuticals

26.

Innovation Law and COVID-19: Promoting Incentives and Access for New Healthcare Technologies

Forthcoming in I. Glenn Cohen, Abbe Gluck, Katherine Kraschel, & Carmel Shachar, COVID-19 and the Law: Disruption, Impact and Legacy. Cambridge University Press, 2022, University of Illinois College of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 21-14
Number of pages: 12 Posted: 07 Jun 2021
Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law, Stanford Law School, University of Michigan Law School and University of Illinois College of Law
Downloads 213 (265,770)
Citation 1

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COVID-19, innovation policy, vaccines, FDA

27.

Distributed Governance of Medical AI

25 SMU Sci. & Tech. L. Rev. 3 (2022), U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 22-008, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 22-008
Number of pages: 20 Posted: 24 Mar 2022 Last Revised: 12 Nov 2022
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 212 (266,950)
Citation 1

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artificial intelligence, governance, regulation, FDA, medical AI

28.

Innovation Institutions and COVID-19

University of Illinois College of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 21-09
Number of pages: 157 Posted: 15 Apr 2021
Stanford Law School, University of Michigan Law School, Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law and University of Illinois College of Law
Downloads 207 (272,884)

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COVID-19, innovation policy, public health, intellectual property law, R&D, grants, procurement, NIH, FDA, EUA, CMS, vaccines, diagnostics, antibody testing, remdesivir, therapeutic antibodies, convalescent serum therapy, pharmaceutical manufacturing, clinical trials, N95s, 3D printing, AI

29.

Expired Patents, Trade Secrets, and Stymied Competition

92 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1611 (2017), U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 16-030, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 532
Number of pages: 30 Posted: 23 Dec 2016 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2018
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 195 (288,116)
Citation 1

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trade secrets, secrecy, patents, innovation

30.

Describing Black-Box Medicine

21 B.U. J. Sci. & Tech. L. 347 (2015)
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 29 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2016
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 157 (348,222)

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personalized medicine, black box, patentability, enablement, 112

31.

Drug Approval in a Learning Health System

102 Minn. L. Rev. 2413 (2018), U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 598
Number of pages: 50 Posted: 03 Apr 2018 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2018
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 128 (409,565)

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FDA, Learning Health Systems, Innovation, Privacy, HIPAA, Informed Consent, Big Data, Medical Innovation

32.

Locating Liability for Medical AI

DePaul Law Review, Forthcoming, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 23-037
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 31 Jul 2023 Last Revised: 15 May 2024
W. Nicholson Price II and I. Glenn Cohen
University of Michigan Law School and Harvard Law School
Downloads 127 (414,445)
Citation 1

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AI, artificial intelligence, liability, tort, medical AI, malpractice, enterprise liability

33.

Risk and Resilience in Health Data Infrastructure

16 Colo. Tech. L.J. 65 (2017), U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 17-004, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 552
Number of pages: 22 Posted: 09 Mar 2017 Last Revised: 30 Jul 2018
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 117 (438,236)
Citation 1

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Health Data, Infrastructure, Resilience

34.

Am I My Son? Human Clones and the Modern Family

11 Colum. Sci. & Tech. L. Rev. 118 (2010), Columbia Public Law Research
Number of pages: 33 Posted: 09 Apr 2009 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2016
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 112 (452,622)

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35.

Innovation Institutions and COVID-19, Part II

Number of pages: 53 Posted: 08 Jul 2022
Stanford Law School, University of Michigan Law School, Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law and University of Illinois College of Law
Downloads 90 (525,091)

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COVID-19, innovation policy, public health, intellectual property law, R&D, grants, procurement, NIH, FDA, EUA, CMS, CDC, vaccines, diagnostics, antivirals, pharmaceuticals, clinical trials, pregnancy, long COVID, WTO, TRIPS, emergency declarations

36.

Patenting Race: The Problems of Ethnic Genetic Testing Patents

8 Colum. Sci. & Tech. L. Rev. 119 (2007)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 18 Aug 2013 Last Revised: 03 Apr 2016
W. Nicholson Price II
University of Michigan Law School
Downloads 57 (674,426)

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Genetic testing, ethnic genetic testing, personalized medicine

37.

How Much Can Potential Jurors Tell Us About Liability for Medical Artificial Intelligence?

Journal of Nuclear Medicine January 2021, 62 (1) 15-16; DOI: https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.257196, U of Michigan Public Law Research Paper No. 21-023, U of Michigan Law & Econ Research Paper No. 21-023, Harvard Public Law Working Paper No. 21-46
Posted: 02 Aug 2021 Last Revised: 13 Dec 2021
W. Nicholson Price II, Sara Gerke and I. Glenn Cohen
University of Michigan Law School, Pennsylvania State University, Dickinson Law and Harvard Law School

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Artificial Intelligence, Liability

38.

Potential Liability for Physicians Using Artificial Intelligence

JAMA. 2019;322(18):1765-1766. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.15064
Posted: 25 May 2021
W. Nicholson Price II, Sara Gerke and I. Glenn Cohen
University of Michigan Law School, Pennsylvania State University, Dickinson Law and Harvard Law School

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artificial intelligence; medical malpractice, liability

39.

Regulatory Responses to Medical Machine Learning

Journal of Law and the Biosciences, Volume 7, Issue 1, January-June 2020, lsaa002, https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsaa002
Posted: 14 Aug 2020 Last Revised: 07 Jul 2021
Timo Minssen, Sara Gerke, Mateo Aboy, W. Nicholson Price II and I. Glenn Cohen
University of Copenhagen - Centre for Advanced Studies in Biomedical Innovation Law (CeBIL) - Faculty of Law, Pennsylvania State University, Dickinson Law, LML, University of Cambridge, University of Michigan Law School and Harvard Law School

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Medical Devices, Artificial Intelligence, Regulation

40.

Shadow Health Records Meet New Data Privacy Laws

Science, Vol. 363, No. 6426, 01.02.2019, p. 448-450., U of Colorado Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 19-13
Posted: 25 Apr 2019 Last Revised: 16 Jul 2020
University of Michigan Law School, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor - Medical School, University of Copenhagen - Centre for Advanced Studies in Biomedical Innovation Law (CeBIL) - Faculty of Law and University of Colorado Law SchoolYale University - Yale Information Society Project

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