Robert C. Richards

University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service

1200 President Clinton Ave

Little Rock, AR 72201

United States

SCHOLARLY PAPERS

24

DOWNLOADS
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Top 44,865

in Total Papers Downloads

1,633

SSRN CITATIONS
Rank 32,732

SSRN RANKINGS

Top 32,732

in Total Papers Citations

5

CROSSREF CITATIONS

20

Scholarly Papers (24)

1.

Embracing Digital Democracy: A Call for Building an Online Civic Commons

PS: Political Science & Politics, 50(3):758-763 (July 2017), DOI:10.1017/S1049096517000555
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 06 Nov 2016 Last Revised: 28 Jun 2017
John Gastil and Robert C. Richards
Pennsylvania State University and University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 191 (238,132)
Citation 2

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Civic engagement, Gamification, Serious games, Participatory democracy, Deliberative democracy, Democratic deliberation, Online civic participation

2.

What is Legal Information?

Boulder Summer Conference on Legal Information: Scholarship & Teaching 2009.
Number of pages: 15 Posted: 13 Jan 2014 Last Revised: 14 Jan 2014
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 185 (245,041)

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legal information, legal metadata

3.

Vicarious Deliberation: How the Oregon Citizens' Initiative Review Influenced Deliberation in Mass Elections

International Journal of Communication, 8, 62-89 (2014)
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 02 Feb 2014
John Gastil, Robert C. Richards and Katherine Knobloch
Pennsylvania State University, University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service and Colorado State University, Fort Collins
Downloads 176 (255,864)

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minipublics, democratic deliberation, deliberative democracy, ballot measures, direct democracy, Oregon Citizens' Initiative Review, Citizens' Initiative Review

4.

Laws of Licensing: U.S. Computer Information Licensing Under the Common Law, the Uniform Commercial Code, and the Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act

Number of pages: 137 Posted: 23 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 13 May 2014
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 158 (280,341)

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UCITA, License agreements, Software licenses, Contracts, Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act, Uniform Commercial Code

5.

Examples of Specialized Legal Metadata Adapted to the Digital Environment, from the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations

12th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, June 2011
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 17 Jun 2011 Last Revised: 13 Jul 2014
Robert C. Richards and Thomas Robert Bruce
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service and Legal Information Institute
Downloads 130 (327,372)

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Legal knowledge representation, legal descriptive metadata, specialized legal metadata, regulatory information systems, administrative law information systems

6.

Legislation by Amateurs: The Role of Legal Details and Knowledge in Initiative Deliberation

NCA 2013: National Communication Association Annual Conference, November 21-24, 2013, Washington, DC
Number of pages: 61 Posted: 08 Nov 2012 Last Revised: 16 Jan 2014
Robert C. Richards and John Gastil
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service and Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 97 (401,963)

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Deliberation, Political Conversation, Participation, Elections, Campaigns, Ballot Measures, Direct Democracy, Ballot Initiatives, Initiative Elections, Deliberative Democracy, Democratic Deliberation, Legal Communication

7.

Open, Generative, and User Centered: The Potential of SMS-Based Legal Technology for Development

Innovations, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 63-68, 2011
Number of pages: 6 Posted: 28 Jun 2011
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 83 (443,072)

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Access to justice, Frontline SMS Legal, ICT for development, ICT4D, ICTD, Innovations: Technology Governance Globalization, Law practice technology, Law practice technology in developing countries, Legal communication, Legal technology in developing countries, MIT Innovations Journal, mLegal, Mobile

8.

Testing Assumptions in Deliberative Democratic Design: A Preliminary Assessment of the Efficacy of the Participedia Data Archive as an Analytic Tool

Journal of Public Deliberation, 13(2), Article 1.
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 28 Jun 2017 Last Revised: 08 Nov 2017
John Gastil, Robert C. Richards, Matt Ryan and Graham Smith
Pennsylvania State University, University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service, University of Southampton and University of Westminster
Downloads 77 (462,711)

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Deliberative democracy, Democratic deliberation, Participatory democracy, Participedia, Meta-synthesis

9.

Empowering Citizen Deliberation in Direct Democratic Elections: A Field Study of the 2012 Oregon Citizens’ Initiative Review

Field Actions Science Reports (FACTS Reports), 11, 1-10, 2014
Number of pages: 11 Posted: 08 Nov 2014
Katherine Knobloch, John Gastil, Traci Feller and Robert C. Richards
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Pennsylvania State University, University of Washington and University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 74 (473,204)

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Civic education, Deliberative democracy, Initiative, Referendum, Civic engagement, Political knowledge,

10.

Deliberation

G. Mazzoleni (Ed.). (2016). International Encyclopedia of Political Communication. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9781118541555
Number of pages: 17 Posted: 14 Jan 2016 Last Revised: 05 Apr 2016
Robert C. Richards and John Gastil
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service and Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 55 (549,455)

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democratic deliberation, deliberative democracy, political communication

11.

Legal Narrative in the Citizens’ Panel: Identifying Theories to Explain Storytelling in a Small Group Deliberation About Ballot Initiatives

NCA 2012: National Communication Association Annual Convention, Orlando, November 15-18, 2012
Number of pages: 40 Posted: 07 Jun 2012 Last Revised: 14 Nov 2012
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 52 (563,464)

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legal narrative, legal communication, democratic deliberation, deliberative democracy, ballot initiatives, direct democracy

12.

The Use of Non-Marc Metadata in Aall Libraries: A Baseline Study

Law Library Journal, Vol. 103, No. 4, pp. 631-658, 2011
Number of pages: 28 Posted: 12 Nov 2011
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 51 (568,149)

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Legal metadata, Legal descriptive metadata, Legal structural metadata, OAI-PMH, OAI-PMH and legal information, Law libraries

13.

From the People's Perspective: Assessing the Representational Validity of a Coding Scheme of Citizens’ Legal Communication about Ballot Initiatives

National Communication Association Annual Convention 2014
Number of pages: 42 Posted: 09 Jun 2014 Last Revised: 06 Oct 2014
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 49 (578,146)

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legal communication, democratic deliberation, direct democracy, ballot initiatives, representational validity

14.

Symbolic-Cognitive Proceduralism: A Model of Deliberative Legitimacy

Journal of Public Deliberation, 11(2), Article 3 (2015)
Number of pages: 32 Posted: 29 Nov 2015 Last Revised: 12 Dec 2015
Robert C. Richards and John Gastil
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service and Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 48 (583,040)

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cognition, communication ethics, democratic deliberation, political communication, political knowledge, legitimacy

Deliberative Mini-publics As a Partial Antidote to Authoritarian Information Strategies

Journal of Public Deliberation, 14(2), Article 3 (2018)
Number of pages: 34 Posted: 11 Oct 2018 Last Revised: 19 Dec 2018
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 39 (646,911)

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democratic deliberation, authoritarianism, information studies

Deliberative Mini-Publics as a Partial Antidote to Authoritarian Information Strategies

Position paper to be presented at the 2017 National Communication Association Annual Convention Preconference, “Public Deliberation and Activism in an Era of Rising Authoritarianism.”
Posted: 07 Sep 2017
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service

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Democratic deliberation, Deliberative democracy, Political communication, Information studies, Authoritarianism

16.

New Ideas on Public Deliberation from Young Scholars. Introduction: Innovations in Deliberative Electoral Designs

Journal of Public Deliberation, 9(2) (2013)
Number of pages: 8 Posted: 14 Mar 2014
John Gastil and Robert C. Richards
Pennsylvania State University and University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 32 (675,277)

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democratic deliberation, deliberative democracy, Citizens' Initiative Review, ballot initiatives, direct democracy

17.

Inspiring and Informing Citizens Online: A Media Richness Analysis of Varied Civic Education Modalities

Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2015
Number of pages: 16 Posted: 10 Apr 2015 Last Revised: 30 May 2016
David Brinker, John Gastil and Robert C. Richards
Pennsylvania State University - Department of Communication Arts & Sciences, Pennsylvania State University and University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 31 (682,001)

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Deliberation, Online Deliberation, Democratic Deliberation, Civic Engagement, Media Richness Theory, Political Communication, Interactivity

18.

When it Comes from the People: The Effects of Reforming Ballot Initiative Explanatory Statements to Accord with Citizens’ Legal Communication Practices

Law and Society Association Annual Conference 2015
Number of pages: 108 Posted: 31 May 2015
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 28 (703,507)

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plain language, plain legal language, framing theory, sense-making theory, deliberative democracy, direct democracy, political communication

19.

Debating Legislative Intent: How Lay Citizens Discern Policy Objectives in Ballot Initiatives

National Communication Association Annual Convention 2014. Accepted as part of the panel: Knobloch, K. R. (Chair), An Experiment in Democracy: Deliberative Governance and the Oregon Citizens’ Initiative Review.
Number of pages: 29 Posted: 09 Jun 2014 Last Revised: 15 Nov 2014
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 28 (703,507)

Abstract:

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democratic deliberation, deliberative democracy, political psychology, political communication, legal communication

20.

The Potential of Participedia as a Crowdsourcing Tool for Comparative Analysis of Democratic Innovations

Policy & Internet, 7(2), 243-262 (2015)
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 02 Mar 2015 Last Revised: 30 May 2016
Graham Smith, Robert C. Richards and John Gastil
University of Westminster, University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service and Pennsylvania State University
Downloads 26 (718,416)

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democracy, participatory democracy, deliberative democracy, democratic deliberation, crowdsourcing, democratic innovation, eparticipation

21.

Making Direct Democracy Deliberative Through Random Assemblies

ASA 2012: The Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, 2012
Number of pages: 31 Posted: 26 Feb 2012 Last Revised: 30 May 2016
John Gastil and Robert C. Richards
Pennsylvania State University and University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service
Downloads 23 (750,348)
Citation 3

Abstract:

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Deliberative democracy, Democratic deliberation, Direct democracy, Random selection, Ballot initiatives, Ballot measures, Referenda

22.

Evaluating Deliberative Information in the Citizens’ Initiative Review

Paper accepted for the 2017 National Communication Association Annual Convention, Dallas, TX.
Posted: 20 Jun 2017
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service

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Democratic deliberation, Information studies, Citizens' Initiative Review, Direct democracy, Political communication, Ballot measures, Ballot initiatives, Citizens' initiatives

23.

U.S. State Government Lawyers’ Goals and Communicative Practices for Advising Lawmakers About Proposed Laws: A Goals-Plans-Action Study

Paper accepted for presentation at the 2016 Law and Society Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA
Posted: 14 Jan 2016
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service

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legal communication, message production

24.

Complementarity, Integration, and Responsiveness: Making E-Government Work in Developing Nations

Public Administration Review, Forthcoming
Posted: 23 Dec 2011
Robert C. Richards
University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service

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ICT4D, electronic government, e-government